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1 Survival analyses of social support and trauma among homeless male and female veterans who abuse substances

Survival analyses of social support and trauma among homeless male and female veterans who abuse substances

APA Citation:

Benda, B. B. (2006). Survival analyses of social support and trauma among homeless male and female veterans who abuse substances. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 76(1), 70-79. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.1.70

Focus:

Mental health
Physical health
Substance use
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


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Article

Authors: Benda, Brent B.

Year: 2006

Abstract

This appears to be the 1st study of gender differences in how well various forms of trauma and social support predict homeless substance abusers' tenure in the community without rehospitalization. Sexual and physical abuses at different stages of the life span, combat exposure, and recent traumatic events were analyzed with social support factors via Cox's proportional hazard model of survival in a 2-year follow-up. The survival models showed similarities and dissimilarities in predictors of tenure in the community for women compared to men among homeless veterans. Traumata and related factors (e.g., depression and suicidal thoughts) were more potent (negative) predictors of tenure, and family and friends were more important social supports, for women than for men. Men's tenure was more positively associated with job satisfaction and more negatively related to substance abuse, combat exposure, cognitive impairments, aggression, and physical health problems. The intervention implications of these findings are discussed.

2 Spiritual well-being, relationships, and work satisfaction in the treatment of homeless veterans with alcohol/other drug problems

Spiritual well-being, relationships, and work satisfaction in the treatment of homeless veterans with alcohol/other drug problems

APA Citation:

Benda, B. B., DiBlasio, F. A., & Pope, S. K. (2006). Spiritual Well-Being, Relationships, and Work Satisfaction in the Treatment of Homeless Veterans with Alcohol/Other Drug Problems. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 24(1-2), 109-124. doi:10.1300/J020v24n01_07

Focus:

Mental health
Substance use
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Aged (65 yrs & older)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Article

Authors: Benda, Brent B.; Diblasio, Frederick A.; Pope, Sandra K.

Year: 2006

Abstract

This study examined a random sample of 600 homeless male veterans, aged 46 to 65, who served in the military during the Vietnam War. The purpose of the study was to identify predictors of readmission to an inpatient treatment program for alcohol and drug abuse in a 2-year follow-up. Among the strongest predictors were comorbidity, suicidal thoughts, memory loss, and childhood sexual and physical abuse. Improvements in family relationships, friendships, work satisfaction, and spiritual well-being were positively related to length of time homeless veterans remained in the community without readmission. Discussion of these findings for service provisions was presented.

3 A study of substance abuse, traumata, and social support systems among homeless veterans

A study of substance abuse, traumata, and social support systems among homeless veterans

APA Citation:

Benda, B. B. (2005). A Study of Substance Abuse, Traumata, and Social Support Systems Among Homeless Veterans. Journal Of Human Behavior In The Social Environment, 12(1), 59-82. doi:10.1300/J137v12n01 04

Focus:

Mental health
Substance use
Veterans

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


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Article

Authors: Benda, Brent B.

Year: 2005

Abstract

This study of 310 women and 315 men, homeless veterans, who abuse substances is designed to examine predictors of readmission to inpatient drug treatment in a two-year follow-up. It appears to he the first study of gender differences in predictors of readmission among homeless veterans, and it examines the possibilities that various social support systems mediate or moderate the relationships between different traumatic experience over the life span and readmission. The findings show that social supports only partially mediate the relationships between traumata and readmission, and certain supports moderate some of these relationships, especially for women. The implications of these findings for understanding readmission of homeless substance abusers and for social services are discussed.

4 Test of a structural equation model of comorbidity among homeless and domiciled military veterans

Test of a structural equation model of comorbidity among homeless and domiciled military veterans

APA Citation:

Benda, B. B. (2001). Test of a structural equation model of comorbidity among homeless and domiciled military veterans. Journal Of Social Service Research, 29(1), 1-35. doi:10.1300/J079v29n01_01

Focus:

Mental health
Substance use
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Aged (65 yrs & older)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Article

Authors: Benda, Brent B.

Year: 2001

Abstract

This exploratory study of 600 Vietnam era military veterans was designed to test a hypothesized theoretical model of comorbidity (substance abuse and depression) among domiciled and homeless persons. The model tested represented an integration of stress process and social support models found in the literatures on substance abuse and on depression. Caregiver attachment and early abuse also were used to elaborate on the integrated stress-social support theoretical model. Using structural equation modeling, all relationships in the hypothesized model were supported by data from domiciled veterans, except attachments to caregivers were not related to peer associations with substance users, and these associations were not related to depression. In contrast, all 24 relationships hypothesized in the model tested were supported among homeless veterans. Conceptual and practice implications of the findings were discussed.

5 Prevalence and characteristics of suicide ideation and attempts among active military and veteran participants in a national health survey

Prevalence and characteristics of suicide ideation and attempts among active military and veteran participants in a national health survey

APA Citation:

Bossarte, R. M., Knox, K. L., Piegari, R., Altieri, J., Kemp, J., & Katz, I. R. (2012). Prevalence and characteristics of suicide ideation and attempts among active military and veteran participants in a national health survey. American Journal Of Public Health, 102(Suppl 1), S38-S40. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300487

Focus:

Mental health
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Army

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Aged (65 yrs & older)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)


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Article

Authors: Bossarte, Robert M.; Knox, Kerry L.; Piegari, Rebecca; Altieri, John; Kemp, Janet; Katz, Ira R.

Year: 2012

Abstract

The relationships between military service and suicide are not clear, and comparatively little is known about the characteristics and correlates of suicide ideation and attempts among those with history of military service. We used data from a national health survey to estimate the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behaviors among veterans and service members in 2 states. The prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Veterans was similar to previous estimates of ideation and attempts among adults in the US general population. (Am J Public Health. 2012;102: S38-S40. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300487)

6 Exploring the post-deployment reintegration experiences of veterans with PTSD and their significant others

Exploring the post-deployment reintegration experiences of veterans with PTSD and their significant others

APA Citation:

Freytes, I. M., LeLaurin, J. H., Zickmund, S. L., Resende, R. D., & Uphold, C. R. (2017). Exploring the post-deployment reintegration experiences of veterans with PTSD and their significant others. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(2), 149-156. https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000211

Focus:

Deployment
Mental health
Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


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Research Summary

Authors: Freytes, I. Magaly; LeLaurin, Jennifer H.; Zickmund, Susan L.; Resende, Rosana D.; Uphold, Constance R.

Year: 2017

Abstract

Veterans with family support have better functional recovery and reintegration outcomes. However, families’ ability to support the veteran with PTSD’s rehabilitation and reintegration oftentimes is hindered by interpersonal challenges. We report findings of a qualitative study that examined OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD/TBI and their significant others’ (SOs’) perceptions of family functioning. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews with 12 veteran/SO dyads using an adapted version of the Family Assessment Device Structured Interview. Descriptive qualitative analytic methods were used to analyze the data. Data show that the impact of deployment and the resulting changes in the individuals and the family dynamics lingered years after the veterans returned home and had a lasting influence on veterans’ and SOs’ perceptions of family functioning. Most couples acknowledged growth in their relationships several years postdeployment. However, many continued to struggle with disruptions generated by deployment. Four themes emerged from the data: individual changes, coping strategies, relationship changes, and a “new normal.” Postdeployment family functioning was influenced by a dynamic interplay of individual and relationship factors and the development of coping strategies and a new normal. This study contributes to the understanding of the prolonged postdeployment family reintegration experiences of veterans and their SOs. Findings underscore the importance of continuing to advance the current knowledge base about the long-term impact of deployment on veterans and their families, especially factors that contribute to positive postdeployment family functioning. Additional empirical studies are needed to provide more in-depth understanding of the long-term postdeployment reintegration experiences of veterans and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

7 A latent profile analysis of aggression and victimization across relationship types among veterans who use substances

A latent profile analysis of aggression and victimization across relationship types among veterans who use substances

APA Citation:

Anderson, R. E., Bonar, E. E., Walton, M. A., Goldstick, J. E., Rauch, S. M., Epstein-Ngo, Q. M., & Chermack, S. T. (2017). A latent profile analysis of aggression and victimization across relationship types among veterans who use substances. Journal Of Studies On Alcohol And Drugs, 78(4), 597-607. doi:10.15288/jsad.2017.78.597

Focus:

Substance use
Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


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Research Summary

Authors: Anderson, RaeAnn E.; Bonar, Erin E.; Walton, Maureen A.; Goldstick, Jason E.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Chermack, Stephen T.

Year: 2017

Abstract

Objective: This study examined patterns of violence victimization and aggression in both intimate partner and nonpartner relationships among U.S. military veterans using latent profile analysis to identify subtypes of violence involvement. Method: Participants were 839 substance use treatment–seeking veterans (93% male) from a large Veterans Affairs Medical Center who completed screening measures for a randomized controlled trial. Results: Past-year violence involvement, including both intimate partner violence (IPV) and nonpartner violence (NPV), was common in the sample, although NPV occurred at somewhat higher rates. When we included either IPV or NPV aggression or victimization, more than 40% reported involvement with physical violence, 30% with violence involving injury, and 86% with psychological aggression. Latent profile analysis including both aggression and victimization in partner and nonpartner relationships indicated a four-profile solution: no/low violence (NLV; n = 377), predominantly IPV (n = 219), predominantly NPV (n = 134), and high general violence (HGV; n = 109). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, compared with the NLV group, the remaining three groups differed in age, cocaine use, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and legal involvement. Legal issues appeared to differentiate the profiles most, with the predominantly NPV and HGV profiles reporting more instances of driving under the influence and the HGV profile reporting legal problems related to aggression. Conclusions: IPV and NPV are fairly common among veterans seeking substance use treatment. The clinical characteristics of violence profiles indicate that cocaine use, PTSD symptoms, and legal involvement are treatment needs that vary with violence profile and may be useful for clinical decision making.

8 Longitudinal changes in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn veterans with hazardous alcohol use: The role of avoidance coping

Longitudinal changes in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn veterans with hazardous alcohol use: The role of avoidance coping

APA Citation:

Lee, J., Possemato, K., & Ouimette, P. C. (2017). Longitudinal changes in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn Veterans with hazardous alcohol use: The role of avoidance coping. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 205(10), 805-808. doi:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000713

Focus:

Mental health
Substance use
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


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Research Summary

Authors: Lee, Joohyun; Possemato, Kyle; Ouimette, Paige C.

Year: 2017

Abstract

Military personnel who have experienced combat trauma are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A greater recognition of the complex array of vulnerability factors that contribute to PTSD severity has led researchers to examine other non-combat-related factors. This longitudinal study examined a number of pre-, peri-, and postdeployment factors hypothesized to contribute to PTSD symptomatology among returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn veterans presenting with at least subthreshold PTSD symptoms and hazardous alcohol use in a primary care setting. Purported risk factors included childhood family environment, severity of combat exposure, postdeployment social support, alcohol dependence severity, and an avoidant coping style. At baseline, postdeployment social support and avoidant coping contributed to PTSD severity. Only avoidant coping was associated with changes in PTSD symptom at 1-year follow-up. Reducing avoidant coping may deter the maintenance of PTSD among veterans with PTSD symptoms and hazardous alcohol use.

9 Thwarted belongingness as an explanatory link between insomnia symptoms and suicidal ideation: Findings from three samples of military service members and veterans

Thwarted belongingness as an explanatory link between insomnia symptoms and suicidal ideation: Findings from three samples of military service members and veterans

APA Citation:

Hom, M. A., Chu, C., Schneider, M. E., Lim, I. C., Hirsch, J. K., Gutierrez, P. M., & Joiner, T. E. (2017). Thwarted belongingness as an explanatory link between insomnia symptoms and suicidal ideation: Findings from three samples of military service members and veterans. Journal of Affective Disorders, 209, 114-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.11.032

Focus:

Deployment
Mental health
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Aged (65 yrs & older)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Very old (85 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)


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Research Summary

Authors: Hom, Melanie A.; Chu, Carol; Schneider, Matthew E.; Lim, Ingrid C.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Joiner, Thomas E.

Year: 2017

Abstract

Background Although insomnia has been identified as a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and behaviors, little is known about the mechanisms by which sleep disturbances confer risk for suicide. We investigated thwarted belongingness as an explanatory link between insomnia symptoms and suicidal ideation across three military service member and veteran samples. Methods Data were collected among United States military service members and veterans (N1=937, N2=3,386, N3=417) who completed self-report measures of insomnia symptoms, thwarted belongingness, suicidal ideation, and related psychiatric symptoms (e.g., anxiety, hopelessness). Bias-corrected bootstrap mediation analyses were utilized to examine the indirect effects of insomnia symptoms on suicidal ideation through thwarted belongingness, controlling for related psychiatric symptoms. Results Consistent with study hypotheses, thwarted belongingness significantly accounted for the relationship between insomnia and suicidal ideation across all three samples; however, insomnia symptoms did not significantly account for the relationship between thwarted belongingness and suicidal ideation, highlighting the specificity of our findings. Limitations This study utilized cross-sectional self-report data. Conclusions Insomnia may confer suicide risk for military service members and veterans, in part, through the pathway of thwarted belongingness. Additional prospective studies are warranted to further delineate this model of risk. Our results offer a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of suicide, via the promotion of belongingness, among service members and veterans experiencing insomnia symptoms.

10 Social skills deficits as a mediator between PTSD symptoms and intimate partner aggression in returning veterans

Social skills deficits as a mediator between PTSD symptoms and intimate partner aggression in returning veterans

APA Citation:

LaMotte, A. D., Taft, C. T., Weatherill, R. P., & Eckhardt, C. I. (2017). Social skills deficits as a mediator between PTSD symptoms and intimate partner aggression in returning Veterans. Journal of Family Psychology, 31(1), 105-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000215

Focus:

Couples
Mental health
Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


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Research Summary

Authors: LaMotte, Adam D.; Taft, Casey T.; Weatherill, Robin P.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.

Year: 2017

Abstract

This study examined social skills deficits as a mediator of the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and use of intimate partner aggression (IPA) among returning veterans. Prior research with veterans has focused on PTSD-related deficits at the decoding stage of McFall's (1982) social information processing model, and the current study adds to this literature by examining social skills deficits at the decision stage. Participants were 92 male veterans recruited from the greater Boston area. PTSD symptoms were assessed through clinician interview, IPA use was assessed through self- and partner report, and social skills deficits were assessed in a laboratory task in which veterans listened to a series of problematic marital situations and responded with what they would say or do in the situation. Responses were coded for social competency. Bivariate correlations revealed several significant associations among PTSD symptoms, social skills deficits, and use of IPA. When all PTSD symptom clusters were entered into a regression predicting social skills deficits, only emotional numbing emerged as a unique predictor. Finally, social skills deficits significantly mediated the relationship between veterans' PTSD symptoms and use of psychological (but not physical) IPA. Findings extend prior research on McFall's (1982) social information processing model as it relates to veterans' PTSD symptoms and use of IPA. More research is needed to understand the associations between PTSD symptoms and deficits at each individual step of this model. (PsycINFO Database Record; (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

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Showing dictionary results for:

Inference, in statistical terms, refers to the estimation of how well sample population parameters reflect the larger population parameters.

Category: Data analyses

Related Terms:

Armed Forces of the United States is "a term used to denote collectively all components of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard (when mobilized under Title 10, United States Code, to augment the Navy)."

The military life cycle (MLC) model is a long-term transition model, through which service members prepare to exit their military career through a series of "touch points" which help service members make informed career decisions to map out their future civilian goals.

Category: Programs, therapies, and resources

Cluster sampling is a form of sampling in which the population sample is chosen by classifying groups within the overall population, then taking a sample from some of those groups randomly. As a result, the potential margin of error is higher in cluster sampling, but the practicality of cluster sampling in terms of cost can outweigh the margin of error in large-scale surveys.

Category: Study methods and variables

Deployment refers to "the movement of forces into and out of an operational area."

Category: Military

Preventive medicine is a practice dedicated to controlling communicable diseases.

Category: Military

An operation is "a sequence of tactical actions with a common purpose or unifying theme."

Category: Military

Related Terms:

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