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1 Inhibitory control moderates the intervention effects of a preventive parenting program on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among male service members

Inhibitory control moderates the intervention effects of a preventive parenting program on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among male service members

APA Citation:

Zhang, J., Buchanan, G. J. R., Monn, A. R., & Gewirtz, A. H. (2021). Inhibitory control moderates the intervention effects of a preventive parenting program on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among male service members. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 35(1), 235-245. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22724

Focus:

Deployment
Mental health
Parents
Physical health
Programming
Trauma

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Army
Navy
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Guard
Reserve

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Zhang, Jingchen; Buchanan, Gretchen J. R.; Monn, Amy R.; Gewirtz, Abigail H.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Military servicemembers face substantial challenges due to war-related trauma exposure, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individuals with deficits in inhibitory control (IC) may have an increased risk of developing PTSD due to a reduced ability to regulate their cognitive responses to and disengage from trauma-related stimuli. After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT) is a mindfulness-infused parenting program for military families that has also been found to have crossover effects on parental mental health. The present study examined whether fathers’ IC at baseline affected their response to this emotional skills–focused intervention and further influenced their PTSD symptoms 1 year later. The sample included 282 male National Guard and Reserve (NG/R) service members who had recently been deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Fathers were randomly assigned to either the ADAPT program or a control condition, with IC measured at baseline and PTSD symptoms measured at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed no significant main effect of the intervention on fathers’ PTSD symptoms. However, fathers’ IC moderated intervention effects on PTSD symptoms, f2 = 0.03. The intervention had more beneficial effects on reducing fathers’ PTSD symptoms for participants with low IC at baseline. These findings are consistent with compensatory effects in the risk moderation hypothesis, which suggests that prevention or intervention programs are more effective for high-risk subgroups.

2 Military and nonmilitary stressors associated with mental health outcomes among female military spouses

Military and nonmilitary stressors associated with mental health outcomes among female military spouses

APA Citation:

Sullivan, K. S., Park, Y., & Riviere, L. A. (2022). Military and nonmilitary stressors associated with mental health outcomes among female military spouses. Family Relations, 71(1), 371-388. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12589

Focus:

Mental health

Branch of Service:

Army

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Sullivan, Kathrine S.; Park, Yangjin; Riviere, Lyndon A.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Objective This study uses a stress process framework and person-centered methods to describe patterns of concurrent stressors across multiple domains and to associate patterns with female military spouse mental health. Background Most military families are resilient. However, a subset of military spouses experiences adverse outcomes in the context of war-related stress. To date, a focus on military-specific stressors has largely obscured the effects of stress unrelated to military service on the well-being of military spouses. Methods Data were drawn from a 2012 survey of 343 U.S. Army spouses, measuring intrapersonal (e.g., adverse childhood experiences), family (e.g., work–family conflict), and military stressors (e.g., cumulative deployments). Outcomes included moderate or more severe depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results The three-step method of latent class analysis identified three classes: low (58.86% of participants), moderate (21.62%), and high (19.52%) stress. Prevalence of mental health problems was significantly elevated in the high-stress class. In this group, 35.3%, 36.3%, and 39.5% of spouses' screenings indicated at least moderate depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptomatology, compared with 3.0%, 3.9%, and 2.7% in the low-stress group. Conclusions Results suggest many military spouses have low stress exposure across domains and low rates of mental health symptoms. However, a subset of spouses may experience both intrapersonal and family-level risk associated with elevated rates of mental health problems. Implications Findings highlight the critical role of nonmilitary stressors in the lives of military spouses and the importance of assessing for and providing support to spouses around these issues.

3 “We'll just draw the curtains!”: Military wives’ postures toward predeployment emotional preparation

“We'll just draw the curtains!”: Military wives’ postures toward predeployment emotional preparation

APA Citation:

Cafferky, B. M., Reyes, C. A. D., Beaver, S. L., & Shi, L. (2022). “We’ll just draw the curtains!”: Military wives’ postures toward predeployment emotional preparation. Family Relations, 71(1), 389-407. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12591

Focus:

Couples
Deployment
Mental health

Branch of Service:

Navy
Army
Marine Corps
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Cafferky, Bryan M.; Reyes, Carmenoemi Angela D.; Beaver, Sarah L.; Shi, Lin

Year: 2022

Abstract

Objective This research explored how 13 military wives emotionally prepared for deployments, and how their preparation affected the degree of emotional difficulty experienced on deployment day. Background Previous research has identified that military wives emotionally detach or withdraw in order not to become emotionally overwhelmed leading up to deployment, but this may affect their deployment-day experience. Method A grounded theory approach to analyze semistructured interviews yielded emergent themes regarding how these military wives perceived the efficacy of emotionally preparing for deployment and their accompanying preparatory approaches. Results When preparing for deployment, these wives primarily adopted either a protective emotional preparation (PEP) approach (characterized by tactics of emotionally retreating, psyching yourself out, and/or circumventing emotional conversations) or a connective emotional preparation (CEP) approach (characterized by preemptive preparation, relying on husbands’ initiative, sharing quality time, or some sort of spiritual connection). Conclusion These PEP and CEP approaches seemed to influence the degree of emotional difficulty the wives reported experiencing on the day of deployment (traumatic vs. terribly difficult). Implications This PEP–CEP framework could help facilitate informed decisions about emotional preparation and Morse's emotional cycle of deployment. Implications and suggestions for policy and clinical considerations are discussed, including those pertaining to CFLEs, military organizations, and mental health professionals.

4 Exploring greater rates of breastfeeding among civilian military wives

Exploring greater rates of breastfeeding among civilian military wives

APA Citation:

Ringo, N., & Gephart, S. M. (2022). Exploring greater rates of breastfeeding among civilian military wives. Nursing for Women’s Health, 26(1), 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nwh.2021.11.003

Focus:

Parents
Children

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Ringo, Nicole; Gephart, Sheila M.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Objective To explore factors contributing to the greater rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration among civilian military wives (e.g., legally married to an active-duty spouse) and to determine what might be learned from these factors for intervention design for the broader population of women in the postpartum period. Design The study was conducted online using a concurrent mixed-methods design. Setting National and International U.S. military bases. Participants The sample consisted of 28 civilian military wives whose ages ranged from 18 to 45 years. Interventions/Measurements The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale–Short Form and semistructured interviews. Results Breastfeeding self-efficacy was high among civilian military wives. Seven main themes with 16 subthemes emerged from the descriptions of the semistructured interviews. The results of the integrative analysis showed that factors within the military environment influence a sense of community and that there were supportive and pro-breastfeeding health care facilitators (especially lactation consultants). Conclusion Civilian military wives described breastfeeding facilitators who they believed promote their greater rates of breastfeeding initiation and continuation, quantified their high level of breastfeeding self-efficacy, and identified descriptive factors that contributed to both areas, topics that are lacking in the literature among this population.

5 PTSD and parental functioning: The protective role of neighborhood cohesion among black and white veterans

PTSD and parental functioning: The protective role of neighborhood cohesion among black and white veterans

APA Citation:

Franz, M. R., Sanders, W., Nillni, Y. I., Vogt, D., Matteo, R., & Galovski, T. (2022). PTSD and parental functioning: The protective role of neighborhood cohesion among Black and White veterans. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 14(S1), S4-S12. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0001123

Focus:

Parents
Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Franz, Molly R.; Sanders, Wesley; Nillni, Yael I.; Vogt, Dawne; Matteo, Rebecca; Galovski, Tara

Year: 2022

Abstract

Objective: Caregivers with a history of trauma exposure may struggle to parent effectively, particularly when symptoms of PTSD are prominent. Consequently, identifying factors that buffer associations between PTSD and poor parental functioning is critical to help trauma-exposed families thrive. One important source of resilience may spring from being part of a socially cohesive neighborhood that offers positive social connections and resources. The purpose of this study was to examine whether greater neighborhood cohesion buffers associations between PTSD and perceived parental functioning. Method: A diverse national sample of 563 Black and White veterans raising children in single or dual parent households completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms and neighborhood cohesion at baseline, as well as parental functioning four months later. Results: Multigroup moderation analyses that controlled for crime index, income, and sex revealed that among single Black veterans, but not other groups, the relationship between higher PTSD and poorer parental functioning was weakened for veterans who reported higher neighborhood cohesion. Conclusions: Findings suggest that PTSD symptoms and neighborhood cohesion affect parenting differently across racial and family makeup configurations, and that higher neighborhood cohesion might be particularly useful in buffering the association between PTSD and parenting among single Black veterans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

6 Effects of social network characteristics on mental health outcomes among United States Army Reserve and National Guard soldiers

Effects of social network characteristics on mental health outcomes among United States Army Reserve and National Guard soldiers

APA Citation:

Vest, B. M., Goodell, E. M. A., Homish, D. L., & Homish, G. G. (2022). Effects of social network characteristics on mental health outcomes among United States Army Reserve and National Guard soldiers. Community Mental Health Journal. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-021-00935-1

Focus:

Mental health
Substance use

Branch of Service:

Army

Military Affiliation:

Guard
Reserve

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Vest, Bonnie M.; Goodell, Erin M. Anderson; Homish, D. Lynn; Homish, Gregory G.

Year: 2022

Abstract

We sought to examine the relative salience of multiple social network structural characteristics (e.g., size, composition, quality, substance use) for understanding soldiers’ mental health symptoms (anger, anxiety, depression, PTSD). Data are drawn from soldiers (N = 421) participating in the Operation: SAFETY study. Negative binomial regression models examined the relationship between ten social network characteristics and mental health outcomes, controlling for age, sex, years of military service, and deployment history. Greater number of close network ties was associated with fewer symptoms of anger, anxiety, and depression (ps < 0.05), but not PTSD. Having more illicit drug-using network ties was associated with greater severity of anxiety symptoms (p < 0.05). Finally, more days spent drinking with network members was related to higher levels of anger (p < 0.05). Interpersonal relationships that entail substance use are associated with greater anxiety and anger while a greater number of close ties is associated with fewer anger, anxiety, and depression symptoms.

7 Military couples' experiences in the aftermath of a cancelled deployment

Military couples' experiences in the aftermath of a cancelled deployment

APA Citation:

Marini, C. M., Basinger, E. D., Monk, J. K., McCall, C. E., & MacDermid Wadsworth, S. M. (2022). Military couples’ experiences in the aftermath of a cancelled deployment. Family Process. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12747

Focus:

Couples
Deployment

Branch of Service:

Army

Military Affiliation:

Guard

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Marini, Christina M.; Basinger, Erin D.; Monk, James K.; McCall, Christine E.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley M.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Deployment requires considerable preparation for military families and changes to these plans may create notable stress. The current study leveraged data from a sample of military couples who experienced the cancellation of an overseas deployment to learn more about their experiences as they adjusted to this change. Guided by family stress and anticipatory stress perspectives, we analyzed qualitative data from 28 service members and their significant others (i.e., spouses or cohabitating partners) to understand their overall reactions to the deployment cancellation. We identified three overall reactions (positive, negative, and ambivalent) that were based on participants' appraisals of-and preparations for-deployment, as well as ambiguity about family roles and relationships. Further, participants across groups experienced uncertainty about whether or not the deployment would occur, and altered timelines for other life events. Together, our findings highlight the post-cancellation period as a significant time of stress and transition for military families. However, our findings also signify the need to help all military families cope with uncertainty about when or if deployments will occur given that the military's priorities are often in flux. We therefore describe coping efforts that may be particularly adaptive for families to engage in as they prepare for uncertain, anticipated stressors.

8 Neurocognitive performance predicts future partner violence among U.S. Iraq- and Afghanistan-deployed Army soldiers and veterans

Neurocognitive performance predicts future partner violence among U.S. Iraq- and Afghanistan-deployed Army soldiers and veterans

APA Citation:

Chiu, C., Gnall, K., Pless Kaiser, A., Taft, C. T., Franz, M. R., Lee, L. O., & Vasterling, J. J. (2022). Neurocognitive performance predicts future partner violence among U.S. Iraq- and Afghanistan-deployed Army soldiers and veterans. Psychology of Violence. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000408

Focus:

Physical health
Mental health
Couples
Veterans
Deployment
Substance use
Trauma

Branch of Service:

Army

Military Affiliation:

Veteran
Active Duty
Guard
Reserve

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Chiu, Christopher; Gnall, Katherine; Pless Kaiser, Anica; Taft, Casey T.; Franz, Molly R.; Lee, Lewina O.; Vasterling, Jennifer J.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes a major U.S. national health concern and disproportionately affects military families. Prior research, which has been conducted primarily in civilian populations, suggests that relative neurocognitive weaknesses may increase risk for IPV. This prospective study examined the associations between postdeployment neurocognitive performance and subsequent IPV (5–13 years later) among warzone veterans in the context of psychological health and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method: Participants were 217 warzone veterans from a nationally dispersed sample of service members and veterans who had previously deployed to the Iraq war zone and their intimate partners. Warzone veterans had previously completed performance-based neurocognitive assessments at a postdeployment assessment. An average of 8 years later, participants completed structured psychiatric interviews and psychometric surveys assessing TBI history, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, alcohol use, and IPV perpetration. Results: Regression analyses revealed that relatively greater psychopathology and history of TBI were significantly associated with more frequent warzone veteran IPV psychological perpetration. Furthermore, relatively poorer postdeployment neurocognitive performance predicted higher subsequent psychological and physical IPV perpetration, adjusting for demographics, psychological health, and TBI. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of identifying both psychological/behavioral and neurocognitive correlates of IPV among warzone veterans. An integrative understanding of IPV risk can help inform both IPV prevention and treatment efforts for warzone veterans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

9 Defeated no more: Meaning-making after military sexual trauma

Defeated no more: Meaning-making after military sexual trauma

APA Citation:

Preston, A. M., Saigal, S., Barrie, R., McKinney, H., Mooney, S., & Padala, P. R. (2022). Defeated no more: Meaning-making after military sexual trauma. Military Medicine, usab528. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usab528

Focus:

Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Army
Navy
Marine Corps
Air Force
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Preston, A’mie M.; Saigal, Seema; Barrie, Rabiatu; McKinney, Hannah; Mooney, Scott; Padala, Prasad R.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Military sexual trauma (MST) has been a concern within our U.S. military for many years. Many interventions have been found to benefit this population, although meaning-based interventions are still lacking in this area. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to understand the meaning-making process and themes that arise for female military veterans as they narrate their experience(s) of MST.The qualitative study consisted of six female participants, from different areas across the nation, who all reported experiencing MST during their time in service. Their experiences of MST included both sexual harassment and sexual assault. Participants completed a semi-structured interview that was analyzed using an axial coding method to discover the major themes of each participant’s interview. The participants discussed the positive and negative aspects of their journey following their MST experience(s). This study’s procedures were approved by Adler University’s Institutional Review Board.Many found the interview to be a healing experience on their path of post-traumatic growth (PTG). There were eight major themes that arose from the data analysis under the three main domains of (1) creating a work or doing a deed, (2) experiencing something or encountering someone in a way to produce PTG, and (3) altering one’s attitude toward unavoidable suffering. The eight themes were as follows: advocacy, adaptive coping, sense of family unit, psychological clarity, meaningful mantra, survivor mentality code, view of self in the world, and resiliency.All participants endorsed engagement in some type of activity that fell into one of the three major domains identified above. This finding helped highlight the PTG that participants were able to experience through their meaning-making journey. There were several recommendations and study implications that were derived from this research study. With the themes introduced from this study, future treatment planning for individual survivors of MST can be better informed by the utilization of meaning-making techniques. Family and group meaning-based interventions would also be an area of continued exploration for this population. Future implications for practice are also included within this article. Significant limitations of the study include amount of participants, lack of diversity in sample population, qualitative study results, and lack of a more-personal interviewing process.

10 Family planning in the U.S. military: The gendered experiences of servicewomen

Family planning in the U.S. military: The gendered experiences of servicewomen

APA Citation:

Erwin, S. K. (2022). Family planning in the U.S. military: The gendered experiences of servicewomen. Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health, 8(1), 102-109. https://doi.org/10.3138/jmvfh-2021-0015

Focus:

Children
Couples
Parents
Other

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Army
Marine Corps
Navy
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Erwin, Stephanie K.

Year: 2022

Abstract

LAY SUMMARY Balancing family and work is always challenging for working women; however, military service presents especially nuanced and unique challenges to women serving in the U.S. military. Family planning, and in particular marriage and children, have distinct impacts on servicewomen’s professional careers. Their chosen professions often intersect and detract from their family planning choices. Within a larger study of gendered experiences, women from all four branches of the U.S. military, representing a variety of familial statuses and occupations, noted the complex and challenging intersections of family and work they encountered over the course of their military careers. As in other professions, military women bear disproportionate familial burdens compared with their male counterparts, and challenges pertaining to marriage and children regularly affect their professional careers. However, the military presents heightened professional demands on family planning, including marital status, marital partners’ professions, pregnancy, maternity, and parenthood. These additional challenges women in the military face regarding family planning often run counter to organizational efforts to encourage women’s participation, promotion, and retention in the military.

11 Food insecurity among active-duty soldiers and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic

Food insecurity among active-duty soldiers and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic

APA Citation:

Rabbitt, M. P., Beymer, M. R., Reagan, J. J., Jarvis, B. P., & Watkins, E. Y. (2022). Food insecurity among active duty soldiers and their families during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Public Health Nutrition. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980022000192

Focus:

Other

Branch of Service:

Army

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Rabbitt, Matthew; Beymer, Matthew; Reagan, Joanna; Jarvis, Brantley; Watkins, Eren

Year: 2022

Abstract

Objective We examined the determinants of food insecurity among active duty Army households that transitioned into food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design We compared Army households that recently transitioned into marginal food insecurity with those households that remained highly food secure (n = 2,832) to better understand how these households differ in their resilience to food insecurity during economic downturns using data from a military installation in the United States in 2020. Setting A U.S. military installation in the United States. Participants Active duty U.S Army soldiers. Results Prior to the pandemic, the prevalence of marginal food insecurity among Army households was similar to that reported for households in the general population. Marginal food insecurity among Army households increased over 1.5-fold—from 19 percent to 33 percent—with the onset of the pandemic. Relative to Army households with consistently high food security, the Army households that transitioned into marginal food insecurity after the onset of the pandemic were more likely to report concerns about financial insecurity and the job security of their family members. Conclusions Army households, like their civilian counterparts, are vulnerable to food insecurity because of instability in their income during periods of economic uncertainty. Periods of economic uncertainty are more common for Army households because of the frequent relocations associated with military service which could lead to predictable periodic spikes in their food insecurity.

12 Examination of the interaction between parental military-status and race among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adolescents with overweight/obesity

Examination of the interaction between parental military-status and race among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adolescents with overweight/obesity

APA Citation:

Higgins Neyland, M. K., Shank, L. M., Lavender, J. M., Burke, N. L., Rice, A., Gallagher-Teske, J... Tanofsky-Kraff, M. (2022). Examination of the interaction between parental military-status and race among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adolescents with overweight/obesity. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, jsac008. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsac008

Focus:

Physical health
Children
Mental health
Youth

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty
Veteran

Population:

School age (6 - 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Higgins Neyland, M. K.; Shank, Lisa M.; Lavender, Jason M.; Burke, Natasha L.; Rice, Alexander; Gallagher-Teske, Julia; Markos, Bethelhem; Faulkner, Loie M.; Djan, Kweku G.; Kwarteng, Esther A.; LeMay-Russell, Sarah; Parker, Megan N.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Wilfley, Denise E.; Ford, Brian; Ford, Caitlin; Haigney, Mark; Klein, David A.; Olsen, Cara H.; Quinlan, Jeffrey; Jorgensen, Sarah; Brady, Sheila; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

Year: 2022

Abstract

Adolescent military-dependents experience distinct risk and protective factors, which may necessitate additional clinical considerations. In civilian youth, overweight/obesity is associated with eating, internalizing, and externalizing difficulties, with some studies reporting more difficulties among non-Hispanic White (vs. non-Hispanic Black) youth. It is unknown if these disparities exist among adolescent military-dependents, or between civilian and military-dependent youth. Non-Hispanic Black (187 civilian, 38 military-dependent) and non-Hispanic White (205 civilian, 84 military-dependent) adolescents with overweight/obesity (14.7 ± 1.6 years; 73.9% girls; body mass index adjusted for age and sex 1.9 ± 0.5) completed a disordered-eating interview; parents completed a measure assessing their child’s internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Multiple linear regressions examined parental military-status as a moderator of the relationship of participant race with eating, internalizing, and externalizing difficulties.  White civilian youth with overweight/obesity reported significantly greater disordered-eating than their Black peers (p < .001); there were no other significant racial differences. In all regressions, parental military-status significantly moderated the association between race and each dependent variable (ps < .047). Black military-dependents (vs. civilians) reported more disordered-eating and internalizing difficulties (ps = .01). White military-dependents (vs. civilians) reported fewer externalizing difficulties (p = .01). Black adolescent military-dependents with overweight/obesity may experience more eating and internalizing difficulties (vs. civilians), a pattern not observed among White participants. Future work should examine if being a military-dependent and a historically marginalized racial group member accounts for these findings. Such data may inform providers of youth with intersecting minority identities.

13 Exploring the advocacy experiences of military families with children who have disabilities

Exploring the advocacy experiences of military families with children who have disabilities

APA Citation:

Aleman-Tovar, J., Schraml-Block, K., DiPietro-Wells, R., & Burke, M. (2022). Exploring the advocacy experiences of military families with children who have disabilities. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 31(3), 843 – 853. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-021-02161-5

Focus:

Children
Parents

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

School age (6 - 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Aleman-Tovar, Janeth; Schraml-Block, Kristen; DiPietro-Wells, Robyn; Burke, Meghan

Year: 2022

Abstract

When children with disabilities receive appropriate services, they experience long-term developmental benefits. Yet, military families of children with disabilities in the United States report lacking access to needed services and having difficulty navigating service delivery systems. Unlike civilian families, military families face added stressors such as deployment and relocation. Parent advocacy may be critical for military families of children with disabilities to access needed services. However, little research has explored advocacy among military families. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the advocacy experiences of military families of children with disabilities. Using a snowballing sampling, we conducted individual interviews with 11 military parents of children with disabilities from five states. Participants reported unique military experiences (e.g., satisfaction with the coverage of their healthcare program but had difficulty navigating healthcare policies), barriers to advocacy (e.g., limited school resources), and facilitators to advocacy (e.g., perseverance and resilience). Based on the findings, implications for practice and research are discussed.

14 Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and relationship satisfaction in military couples

Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and relationship satisfaction in military couples

APA Citation:

Khalifian, C. E., Bosch, J., Knopp, K., Delay, C., Sohn, M. J., & Morland, L. A. (2022). Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and relationship satisfaction in military couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 36(4), 630-635. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000952

Focus:

Mental health
Trauma
Couples
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches
Army
Navy
Air Force
Marine Corps

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Khalifian, Chandra E.; Bosch, Jeane; Knopp, Kayla; Delay, Christophe; Sohn, Min Ji; Morland, Leslie A.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) have been found to influence one’s own mental health and relationship satisfaction in adulthood; however, the association between one’s own ACEs and their partner’s individual and relationship functioning has not been explored. Veterans (n = 103) and their significant others (S-O; total N = 206) completed assessments on ACEs, depression, relationship satisfaction, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptom severity as part of a baseline assessment in a treatment outcome study for veterans with PTSD and their S-Os. Actor Partner Interdependence Moderation Modeling (APIMoM) was conducted. Higher ACE score was positively related to PTSD for all participants. Female S-O’s ACE score was positively related to their own depression, and male S-Os reported higher depression and lower relationship satisfaction when their partners reported a higher ACE score. Surprisingly, female veterans experienced higher relationship satisfaction when their S-Os reported a higher ACE score. ACEs are related differently to one’s own and one’s partner’s mental health and relationship satisfaction and should be assessed when conducting couple’s interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

15 Families serve too: Military spouse well-being after separation from active-duty service

Families serve too: Military spouse well-being after separation from active-duty service

APA Citation:

Corry, N. H., Joneydi, R., McMaster, H. S., Williams, C. S., Glynn, S., Spera, C., & Stander, V. A. (2022). Families serve too: Military spouse well-being after separation from active-duty service. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2022.2038788

Focus:

Couples
Deployment
Mental health
Physical health

Branch of Service:

Army
Navy
Marine Corps
Air Force
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty
Veteran
Guard
Reserve

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Corry, Nida H.; Joneydi, Rayan; McMaster, Hope S.; Williams, Christianna S.; Glynn, Shirley; Spera, Christopher; Stander, Valerie A.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Background and Objectives Transitioning from military to civilian life can be challenging for families, but most research focuses only on the service member. We applied a life course model to assess spouse well-being following this important transition.Design Prospective, longitudinal survey of service members and their spousesMethods We captured three spouse well-being domains: psychological health, physical health, and family relationships. We identified differences between families who separated from service and those still affiliated (N = 4,087) and assessed baseline factors associated with spouse well-being after the family separated from service (N = 1,199).Results Spouses of service members who had separated from the military (versus those who had not) reported poorer mental health and family relationship quality at baseline and follow-up. After controlling for baseline differences, spouses whose families transitioned experienced a greater increase in PTSD symptoms and a steeper decline in quality of marriage. Spouses of active-duty service members reported greater increases in work–family conflict. Among families who had transitioned, the most consistent predictor of positive outcomes was baseline well-being. Protective factors included having more psychological and social resources and less financial stress.Conclusions Several protective and risk factors identified in the study may inform programming for families transitioning from active duty.

16 The influence of romantic relationships in assessment of suicide risk in U.S. Army soldiers

The influence of romantic relationships in assessment of suicide risk in U.S. Army soldiers

APA Citation:

Chalker, S. A., Khalifian, C. E., Milano, R., Dende, J., & Jobes, D. A. (2022). The influence of romantic relationships in assessment of suicide risk in U.S. Army Soldiers. Military Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2022.2028532

Focus:

Mental health
Couples

Branch of Service:

Army

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Chalker, Samantha A.; Khalifian, Chandra E.; Milano, Robert; Dende, Jacqueline; Jobes, David A.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Even though suicide theories highlight the importance of interpersonal connection, little is known about how romantic relationships impact suicide risk among military personal seeking treatment for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Data were drawn from active-duty U.S. Soldier participants with suicidal ideation engaged in a suicide-focused treatment – the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS). This exploratory study used a mixed-methods approach to examine two aims: (a) frequencies in which romantic relationships were endorsed in the context of the initial the Suicide Status Form (SSF; the multipurpose clinical tool used in CAMS) and (b) if having endorsed romantic relationships were implicated in their suicidal thoughts and self-inflicted injuries regardless of intent (i.e., non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts). We found that 76% of participants mentioned a romantic partner in at least one qualitative assessment item on the SSF. More specifically, 22.6% identified their romantic relationship as a reason for living or a reason for dying, and half of those participants indicated that their romantic relationship was both a reason for living and dying. Soldier participants who identified a current romantic relationship problem, were significantly more likely to have made a self-inflicted injury regardless of intent in their lifetime. Overall, suicidal thoughts and behaviors are intertwined with romantic relationship dynamics, and suicide-focused interventions may benefit from directly addressing these relationship issues with active-duty Soldiers.

17 VA family service access and utilization in a national sample of veterans

VA family service access and utilization in a national sample of veterans

APA Citation:

McKee, G. B., Knopp, K., Glynn, S. M., & McDonald, S. D. (2022). VA family service access and utilization in a national sample of veterans. Psychological Services. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000626

Focus:

Veterans
Mental health
Other

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: McKee, Grace B.; Knopp, Kayla; Glynn, Shirley M.; McDonald, Scott D.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Relationship and family difficulties are common experiences for military veterans, who are able to access family services (i.e., couple and family therapy) through the Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System. This study examines demographic, mental health, military, and referral source variables associated with referral to and utilization of family services using a large national VA dataset of 22,969 veterans who were referred to couple or family therapy from 2016 to 2019. Of those referred, 44.39% had a completed referral; among those who initiated therapy, 31.11% attended five or more sessions. Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of completed referrals and of attending five or more sessions of couple or family therapy. Veterans identifying as Black/African American, American Indian or Alaska Native were less likely to have a completed referral than non-Hispanic White veterans; moreover, veterans identifying as Black/African American or Hispanic were less likely to attend five or more sessions. Lower likelihood of a completed referral was also associated with rural county residence, being separated, post-9/11 service era, a substance use disorder diagnosis, and being referred by a psychiatrist, neurologist, physician, or nursing staff rather than a psychologist. Lower likelihood of attending five or more sessions was associated with a delay of 22 or more days to intake, an adjustment disorder diagnosis, and being referred from VA specialty care, or by a psychiatrist or neurologist. These findings may help inform efforts for outreach and service retention within VA family services in order to ensure equity in access to care and healthcare utilization. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

18 Veteran families with complex needs: A qualitative study of the veterans’ support system

Veteran families with complex needs: A qualitative study of the veterans’ support system

APA Citation:

Maguire, A. M., Keyser, J., Brown, K., Kivlahan, D., Romaniuk, M., Gardner, I. R., & Dwyer, M. (2022). Veteran families with complex needs: A qualitative study of the veterans’ support system. BMC Health Services Research, 22(1), Article 74. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-07368-2

Focus:

Mental health
Veterans

Branch of Service:

International Military

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Maguire, Angela M.; Keyser, Julieann; Brown, Kelly; Kivlahan, Daniel; Romaniuk, Madeline; Gardner, Ian R.; Dwyer, Miriam

Year: 2022

Abstract

Families with complex needs face significant challenges accessing and navigating health and social services. For veteran families, these challenges are exacerbated by interactions between military and civilian systems of care, and the density of the veterans’ non-profit sector. This qualitative study was designed to gather rich, detailed information on complex needs in veteran families; and explore service providers’ and families’ experiences of accessing and navigating the veterans’ support system.

19 A different kind of battle: The effects of NICU admission on military parent mental health

A different kind of battle: The effects of NICU admission on military parent mental health

APA Citation:

Anchan, J., Jones, S., Aden, J., Ditch, S., Fagiana, A., Blauvelt, D., ... & Carr, N. (2021). A different kind of battle: The effects of NICU admission on military parent mental health. Journal of Perinatology, 41, 2038 - 2047. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-021-00994-y

Focus:

Parents

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Army
Coast Guard
Multiple branches
Navy

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Anchan, Joshua; Jones, Shallimar; Aden, Jay; Ditch, Sarah; Fagiana, Angela; Blauvelt, Donia; Cristina, Maria; Carr, Nicholas

Year: 2021

Abstract

Objective To determine the incidence of mental health symptoms in military families after prolonged NICU admission. Study design Prospective cohort study of military-affiliated NICU parents participating in serial electronic surveys, which included validated screening tools for acute stress (ASD), post-traumatic stress (PTSD), and depression disorders. Results Among 106 military parents surveyed after NICU admission, 24.5% screened positive for ASD and 28.3% for depression. 77 (72.6%) parents continued participation beyond discharge, with 7.8% screening positive for PTSD and 15.6% for late depression. Positive ASD correlated with later symptoms of PTSD (OR 8.4 [2.4–30]) and early depression with both PTSD symptoms (OR 5.7 [1.7–18.8]) and late depression (OR 8.4 [2.4–30]) after discharge. Secondary analysis determined these findings were independent of deployment and other military related factors. Conclusion This study highlights the potential mental health burden experienced by military-affiliated NICU parents. Early ASD and depression screening may identify parents at risk for mental health symptoms after discharge.

20 Effects of emotion dysregulation on post-treatment post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among women veterans with military sexual trauma

Effects of emotion dysregulation on post-treatment post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among women veterans with military sexual trauma

APA Citation:

Lopez, C. M., Gilmore, A. K., Brown, W. J., Hahn, C. K., Muzzy, W., Grubaugh, A., & Acierno, R. (2021). Effects of emotion dysregulation on post-treatment post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among women veterans with military sexual trauma. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605211005134

Focus:

Mental health
Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Lopez, Cristina M.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Brown, Wilson J.; Hahn, Christine K.; Muzzy, Wendy; Grubaugh, Anouk; Acierno, Ron

Year: 2021

Abstract

Military sexual trauma (MST), defined as sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment while in the military, is associated with increased risk of long-term mental and physical health problems, with the most common being symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. In addition to PTSD and depression, MST is linked to difficulties in emotion regulation as well as poor treatment engagement. Thus, it is important to examine these correlates, and how they affect postintervention symptom reduction in this vulnerable population. The current study presents secondary data analyses from a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of in-person versus telemedicine delivery of prolonged exposure therapy for female veterans with MST-related PTSD (n = 151). Results of the study found that changes in difficulties with emotion regulation predicted postintervention depressive symptoms but not postintervention PTSD symptoms. Neither postintervention depressive nor PTSD symptoms were affected by treatment dosing (i.e., number of sessions attended) nor treatment condition (i.e., in-person vs. telemedicine). Findings from the current study provide preliminary evidence that decreases in difficulties with emotion regulation during PTSD treatment are associated with decreases in depressive symptom severity.

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An interaction occurs when an independent variable has a different effect on the outcome depending on the values of another independent variable

Category: Data analyses

2 Purple

“A term indicating that an activity or a program includes all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces.”

Category: Military

3 Post

“The Army term for a military installation.”

Category: Military

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Inference, in statistical terms, refers to the estimation of how well sample population parameters reflect the larger population parameters.

Category: Data analyses

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“A short-term stressful event or situation (e.g., a child having difficulties with a friend).”

“A state of long-term exhaustion, a decreased interest in work, and dissatisfaction with the work environment.”

Category: Programs, therapies, and resources

“A stressful longer-term event or situation (e.g., an ongoing health issue.)”

Category: Programs, therapies, and resources

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