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Showing library results for: social support

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1 Facing the fear: Resilience and social support in veterans and civilians with PTSD

Facing the fear: Resilience and social support in veterans and civilians with PTSD

APA Citation:

Wall, C. L. & Lowe, M. (2020). Facing the fear: Resilience and social support in veterans and civilians with PTSD. Journal of Aggression, Conflict, and Peace Research, 12(2), 75-85. https://doi.org/10.1108/JACPR-11-2019-0455

Focus:

Deployment
Mental health
Trauma
Other

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty
Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)
Very old (85 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Wall, Charlotte Louise; Lowe, Michelle

Year: 2020

Abstract

Purpose This study aims to investigate the effects of resilience and social support on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of 121 veterans (n = 56) and civilians (n = 65). Design/methodology/approach Gender, age and marital status were collected, along with occupation for civilians and the unit served with, rank, length of time deployed, overall months active and location for veterans. The trauma experiences scale for civilians, the PTSD checklist for civilian and military, Resilience Research Centre’s Adult Resilience Measure-28, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Deployment Risk and Resiliency Inventory-2 scales were used. Findings The results revealed for both samples, resilience and social support (except unit support for veterans) impacted PTSD symptoms. However, social support did not mediate the relationship between resilience and PTSD. Practical implications Implications for policy and practice were discussed. Originality/value The originality of this research stems from the incorporation of both a civilian and military sample by comparing their levels of PTSD, resilience and social support.

2 Social causation or social erosion? Evaluating the association between social support and PTSD among veterans in a transition program

Social causation or social erosion? Evaluating the association between social support and PTSD among veterans in a transition program

APA Citation:

Cox, D. W., Baugh, L. M., McCloskey, K. D., & Iyara, M. (2018). Social causation or social erosion? Evaluating the association between social support and PTSD among Veterans in a transition program. Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health, 5(1), 71-79. https://doi.org/10.3138/jmvfh.2017-0040

Focus:

Programming
Deployment
Trauma
Mental health
Veterans

Branch of Service:

International Military

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Cox, D. W.; Baugh, L. M.; McCloskey, K. D.; Iyara, M.

Year: 2018

Abstract

ntroduction: Social support’s association with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Veterans is well established. One explanation for this link is social causation – support inhibits PTSD. Inversely, within the social erosion model, PTSD erodes support. The aim of the present study was to examine if the social causation or social erosion model better explained the association between support and PTSD within a psychosocial intervention context. Methods: Veterans (N = 218) participating in a multimodal transition program were assessed pre-program, post-program, and at 3-month follow-up on their perceived social support and PTSD symptoms. We used path analysis to conduct a three-wave cross-lagged panel model to compare the social erosion and social causation models. Results: PTSD symptoms were associated with attenuated improvements in social support, while social support was not associated with increased reductions in PTSD symptoms. This association was observed from pre- to post-program and from post-program to follow-up. Discussion: These findings support the social erosion model over the social causation model. Clinical implications of PTSD inhibiting interpersonal gains are discussed.

3 Unit cohesion and social support as protective factors against suicide risk and depression among National Guard Service members

Unit cohesion and social support as protective factors against suicide risk and depression among National Guard Service members

APA Citation:

Rugo, K.F., Leifker, F. R., Drake-Brooks, M. M., Snell, M. B., Bryan, C. J., & Bryan, A. O. (2020). Unit cohesion and social support as protective factors against suicide risk and depression among National Guard service members. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 39(3), 214-228. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2020.39.3.214

Focus:

Mental health

Branch of Service:

Army
Navy

Military Affiliation:

Guard

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Rugo, Kelsi F.; Leifker, Feea R.; Drake-Brooks, Malisa M.; Snell, Michael B.; Bryan, Craig J.; Bryan, Annabelle O.

Year: 2020

Abstract

Introduction: Suicide and depression continue to be pervasive problems across military populations, including within the National Guard. Existing literature highlights the protective effects of social support and unit cohesion for both suicide risk and depression, yet to our knowledge, these associations have never been confirmed in National Guard populations. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of social support resources (i.e., general social support and unit cohesion) on depression and suicide risk among a large sample (n = 877) of National Guard service members.Methods: Multilevel modeling was used to examine the impact of social support resources on depression and suicide ideation at both the individual and unit level.Results: Results indicated that higher levels of perceived social support were associated with lower levels of depression and suicide ideation at both the individual and unit levels. Additionally, higher levels of perceived unit cohesion significantly predicted lower levels of depression and suicide ideation at the individual, but not unit level.Discussion: Limitations include self-report measurement and cross-sectional nature of the data. These findings hold implications for improvement of operational climate within military units and reduction of suicide risk and depressive symptoms among National Guard service members.

4 Changes in perceived social support and socioemotional adjustment across the elementary to junior high school transition

Changes in perceived social support and socioemotional adjustment across the elementary to junior high school transition

APA Citation:

Martínez, R. S., Aricak, O. T., Graves, M. N., Peters-Myszak, J., & Nellis, L. (2011). Changes in perceived social support and socioemotional adjustment across the elementary to junior high school transition. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(5), 519-530. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9572-z

Focus:

Programming
Youth
Other

Population:

Childhood (birth - 12 yrs)
School age (6 - 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Martínez, Rebecca S.; Aricak, O. Tolga; Graves, Misha N.; Peters-Myszak, Jessica; Nellis, Leah

Year: 2011

Abstract

One of the most fundamental factors related to psychological well being across the lifespan is whether a person perceives social support from important others in his or her life. The current study explored changes in and relationships among perceived social support (SS) and socioemotional adjustment (SEA) across the 1-year transition from elementary to junior high school. Two cohorts of students (N = 140) participated in the current study that took place across a 3-year time span. Analyses of the transition data for boys and girls together reveal declines in perceived total support and teacher support as well as an increase in self-reported school problems. When considering the sexes separately, girls’ perceived total support, close friend support and school support declined while boy’s self-reported school problems increased across the transition. Although social support did not emerge as a mediator or predictor for any of the socioemotional variables in the current study, results reveal that, in general, perceived social support and socioemotional functioning at the end of the last year of elementary school predicts perceived social support and socioemotional functioning at the end of the first year of junior high school. Study limitations and implications for research and practice are discussed.

5 The effects of stress and social support on externalizing behaviors among children in military families

The effects of stress and social support on externalizing behaviors among children in military families

APA Citation:

Sumner, J., Boisvert, D., & Andersen, J. (2016). The effects of stress and social support on externalizing behaviors among children in military families. Deviant Behavior, 37(3), 246-262. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2015.1012403

Focus:

Children
Mental health
Parents
Programming

Branch of Service:

Army
Coast Guard
Marine Corps
Multiple branches
Navy

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Sumner, Jennifer; Boisvert, Danielle; Andersen, Judith P.

Year: 2016

Abstract

Drawing on social support theory, this study examines the main and interactive effects of parental perceived stress and social support on externalizing behaviors in military youth. Findings reveal that not only do social support and stress affect the conduct of military children, but social support also moderately buffers the effects of parental stress. Given the increasing distance between military and American culture, more generally, this research is one opportunity to make sense of contradictory expectations about the well-being of military youth. In doing so, it provides implications for how a more supportive organization can benefit military families.

6 Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans

Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans

APA Citation:

Romero, D. H., Riggs, S. A., & Ruggero, C. (2015). Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(2), 242–252. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000061

Focus:

Mental health
Other
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches
Air Force
Army
Coast Guard
Navy
Marine Corps

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Romero, Daniel H.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Ruggero, Camilo

Year: 2015

Abstract

With rising numbers of student veterans on today’s college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans’ mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

7 Examining the role of social support in treatment for co-occurring substance use disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

Examining the role of social support in treatment for co-occurring substance use disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

APA Citation:

Jarnecke, A. M., Saraiya, T. C., Brown, D. G., Richardson, J., Killeen, T., & Back, S. E. (2022). Examining the role of social support in treatment for co-occurring substance use disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 15, Article 100427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2022.100427

Focus:

Substance use
Mental health
Veterans
Trauma

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Jarnecke, Amber M.; Saraiya, Tanya C.; Brown, Delisa G.; Richardson, James; Killeen, Therese; Back, Sudie E.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Objective Social support may be a critical mechanism in the treatment of co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no studies have examined how social support changes as a function of treatment or predicts treatment outcome in a Veteran population with co-occurring SUD and PTSD. Method The current study is a secondary analysis that examined social support over the course of treatment for co-occurring SUD and PTSD (N = 81). Analyses were conducted to examine if a) social support predicts change in substance use and PTSD symptoms, respectively, over the course of treatment and during follow-up, and b) substance use and PTSD symptoms, respectively, predicts change in social support over treatment and during follow-up. Results The findings revealed that between-person social support moderated decreases in substance use (B = −0.17, SE = 0.07, p = 0.017) and PTSD symptom severity (B = −0.12, SE = 0.05, p = 0.009) during treatment but not during follow-up. Within-person substance use and PTSD symptom severity predicted social support but substance use and PTSD symptoms did not moderate changes in social support during treatment or follow-up. Conclusions The findings highlight the critical role of social support during treatment in enhancing outcomes for individuals with co-occurring SUD and PTSD.

8 Stress-buffering versus support erosion: Comparison of causal models of the relationship between social support and psychological distress in military spouses

Stress-buffering versus support erosion: Comparison of causal models of the relationship between social support and psychological distress in military spouses

APA Citation:

Ross, A. M., Steketee, G., Emmert-Aronson, B. O., Brown, T. A., Muroff, J., & DeVoe, E. R. (2020). Stress-buffering versus support erosion: Comparison of causal models of the relationship between social support and psychological distress in military spouses. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 90(3), 361–373. https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000438.

Focus:

Couples
Mental health
Parents

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Army
Marine Corps
Navy
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Guard
Reserve

Population:

Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Ross, Abigail M.; Steketee, Gail; Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O.; Brown, Timothy A.; Muroff, Jordana; DeVoe, Ellen R.

Year: 2020

Abstract

Spouses of National Guard/Reserve (NG/R) military service members cope with deployment-related stressors (DRS) that may contribute to increased psychological distress. Research indicates that higher levels of social support are associated with reduced depression and anxiety in military spouses, but longitudinal relationships have not yet been examined bidirectionally. This study examines temporal relationships between 3 dimensions of social support (social connectedness, dyadic satisfaction, and perceived support), and psychological distress in a sample of NG/R spouses during the first year after a service member returns from deployment. Data from 103 military spouses were drawn from a larger intervention development study. Autoregressive cross-lagged panel analyses examined the stress-buffering and support erosion hypotheses over a 3-month period. DRS were measured by the cumulative number of deployments and duration of most recent deployment. Distress was assessed using latent variables of depression and anxiety. Statistically significant relationships emerged between initial levels of psychological distress and social connectedness at 3 months. Social support dimensions of dyadic satisfaction and perceived support did not predict subsequent levels of psychological distress. No significant relationships emerged between any dimension of social support at baseline and either form of psychological distress at 3 months. The support erosion hypothesis may more accurately describe the relationship between social support and psychological distress in this sample than the stress-buffering mechanism. During the first year of reintegration, social connectedness may be of particular relevance for NG/R spouses, as they may not have access to supports typically available to their active duty counterparts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

9 Social networking, social support, and well-being for the military spouse

Social networking, social support, and well-being for the military spouse

APA Citation:

Seagle, E. S., Xu, J., Edwards, N., & McComb, S. A. (2021). Social networking, social support, and well-being for the military spouse. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 17(5), 600-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2020.12.013

Focus:

Mental health
Other
Physical health

Branch of Service:

Air Force

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Seagle, Erika S.; Xu, Jiayun; Edwards, Nancy; McComb, Sara A.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Military spouses experience unique stressors due to service member deployments and frequent relocations. Our purpose is to examine how military spouses use social networking groups, such as Facebook, and determine how this use was related to perceived social support and well-being. We found more frequent Facebook use was associated with decreased well-being compared with those who reported using Facebook less frequently. Practitioners may enhance the care provided to military spouses by inquiring about their circumstances, social media use, and helping them to identify social support services that may mitigate stress and improve well-being.

10 Main and interactive effects of social support in predicting mental health symptoms in men and women following military stressor exposure

Main and interactive effects of social support in predicting mental health symptoms in men and women following military stressor exposure

APA Citation:

Smith, B. N., Vaughn, R. A., Vogt, D., King, D. W., King, L. A., & Shipherd, J. C. (2013). Main and interactive effects of social support in predicting mental health symptoms in men and women following military stressor exposure. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 26(1), 52-69. doi:10.1080/10615806.2011.634001

Focus:

Deployment
Mental health

Branch of Service:

Marine Corps

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Smith, Brian N.; Vaughn, Rachel A.; Vogt, Dawne; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Shipherd, Jillian C.

Year: 2013

Abstract

Evidence across a multitude of contexts indicates that social support is associated with reduced risk for mental health symptoms. More information is needed on the effectiveness of different sources of support, as well as sex differences in support. Associations between social support from two sources – the military unit and friends and family – and mental health symptoms were examined in a study of 1571 Marine recruits assessed at the beginning and end of a highly stressful 13-week training program. Military social support buffered the stressor exposure–posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) relationship, whereas the relationship between stressor exposure and PTSS was highest when civilian social support was high. Further inspection of the interactions revealed that military support was most important at high levels of stressor exposure. Sex differences in the relationship between social support and symptoms were found, such that support from military peers was associated with lower levels of PTSS for men, whereas civilian support was associated with lower PTSS for women. While civilian social support was associated with lower levels of depression symptom severity in both women and men, the relationship was stronger for women. Reviewed implications focus on the importance of considering the recipient, source, and context of social support.

11 Differences in functional and structural social support among female and male veterans and civilians

Differences in functional and structural social support among female and male veterans and civilians

APA Citation:

Campbell, S. B., Gray, K. E., Hoerster, K. D., Fortney, J. C., & Simpson, T. L. (2021). Differences in functional and structural social support among female and male veterans and civilians. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 56, 375-386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-020-01862-4

Focus:

Veterans
Other

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)
Very old (85 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Campbell, Sarah B.; Gray, Kristen E.; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Fortney, John C.; Simpson, Tracy L.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Purpose: Social support is an important correlate of health behaviors and outcomes. Studies suggest that veterans have lower social support than civilians, but interpretation is hindered by methodological limitations. Furthermore, little is known about how sex influences veteran-civilian differences. Therefore, we examined veteran-civilian differences in several dimensions of social support and whether differences varied by sex. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, a nationally representative sample of 34,331 respondents (male veterans = 2569; female veterans = 356). We examined veteran-civilian differences in functional and structural social support using linear regression and variation by sex with interactions. We adjusted for socio-demographics, childhood experiences, and physical and mental health. Results: Compared to civilians, veterans had lower social network diversity scores (difference [diff] = - 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 0.23, - 0.03). Among women but not men, veterans had smaller social network size (diff = - 2.27, 95% CI - 3.81, - 0.73) than civilians, attributable to differences in religious groups, volunteers, and coworkers. Among men, veterans had lower social network diversity scores than civilians (diff = - 0.13, 95% CI - 0.23, - 0.03); while among women, the difference was similar but did not reach statistical significance (diff = - 0.13, 95% CI - 0.23, 0.09). There was limited evidence of functional social support differences. Conclusion: After accounting for factors that influence military entry and social support, veterans reported significantly lower structural social support, which may be attributable to reintegration challenges and geographic mobility. Findings suggest that veterans could benefit from programs to enhance structural social support and improve health outcomes, with female veterans potentially in greatest need.

12 The role of psychological symptomatology and social support in the academic adjustment of previously deployed student veterans

The role of psychological symptomatology and social support in the academic adjustment of previously deployed student veterans

APA Citation:

Campbell, R., & Riggs, S. A. (2015). The role of psychological symptomatology and social support in the academic adjustment of previously deployed student veterans. Journal of American College Health, 63(7), 473-481. doi:10.1080/07448481.2015.1040408

Focus:

Mental health
Other
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Army
Marine Corps
Multiple branches
Navy

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Campbell, Robyn; Riggs, Shelley A.

Year: 2015

Abstract

Context: Research has indicated that returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans are experiencing mental health concerns following deployment. Increasing numbers of veterans are enrolling in higher education institutions; there is a scarcity of empirical research investigating student veterans' experiences as they transition into college. Objective: To examine the effects of psychological distress and social support on academic adjustment among a sample of student veterans who were previously deployed. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were 117 military veterans enrolled in college. Questionnaires were administered via SurveyMonkey from June 2012 to April 2013. Results: Results indicated that military unit support during deployment, current social support, anxiety, and posttraumatic symptoms, but not depressive symptoms, were significantly associated with academic adjustment. Conclusions: Results from the current study can be used by college administrators and counseling centers to improve service delivery and programming specifically for student veterans.

13 The impact of multiple deployments and social support on stress levels of women married to active duty servicemen

The impact of multiple deployments and social support on stress levels of women married to active duty servicemen

APA Citation:

Van Winkle, E. P., & Lipari, R. N. (2015). The impact of multiple deployments and social support on stress levels of women married to active duty servicemen. Armed Forces & Society, 41(3), 395-412. doi:10.1177/0095327X13500651

Focus:

Children
Couples
Deployment
Mental health

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Army
Multiple branches
Navy
Marine Corps

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Van Winkle, Elizabeth P.; Lipari, Rachel N.

Year: 2015

Abstract

Using a large-scale survey, we examined the relationship between number of deployments experienced by female spouses of active duty military members and these spouses’ perceived stress. Results suggest a nonlinear relationship such that spouses who had not experienced a deployment reported the lowest stress levels. Stress levels increase after initial deployments and decrease after approximately two deployments, which may indicate an element of resiliency that builds up as spouses acclimate to a deployment lifestyle. Stress levels again increase after several deployments, which may signify limitations to this resiliency over time. A secondary finding showed that higher levels of social support predicted lower levels of stress, above and beyond the number of deployments. This relationship between social support and stress helped explain the negative relationship between parental status and stress. That is, spouses with children may have lower stress levels due to the social network that accompanies parental status.

14 A cross-lagged panel approach to understanding social support and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: Assessment modality matter

A cross-lagged panel approach to understanding social support and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: Assessment modality matter

APA Citation:

Woodward, M. J., Morisette, S. B., Kimbrel, N. A., Meyer, E. C., DeBeer, B. B., Gulliver, S. B., & Beck, J. G. (2018). A cross-lagged panel approach to understanding social support and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: Assessment modality matters. Behavior Therapy, 49, 796-808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2018.01.004

Focus:

Mental health
Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Woodward, Matthew J.; Morissette, Sandra B.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; DeBeer, Bryann B.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Beck, J. Gayle

Year: 2018

Abstract

Although there is a strong and consistent association between social support and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the directionality of this association has been debated, with some research indicating that social support protects against PTSD symptoms, whereas other research suggests that PTSD symptoms erode social support. The majority of studies in the literature have been cross-sectional, rendering directionality impossible to determine. Cross-lagged panel models overcome many previous limitations; however, findings from the few studies employing these designs have been mixed, possibly due to methodological differences including self-report versus clinician-administered assessment. The current study used a cross-lagged panel structural equation model to explore the relationship between social support and chronic PTSD symptoms over a 1-year period in a sample of 264 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans assessed several years after trauma exposure. Approximately a third of the sample met criteria for PTSD at the baseline assessment, with veterans’ trauma occurring an average of 6 years prior to baseline. Two separate models were run, with one using PTSD symptoms assessed via self-report and the other using clinician-assessed PTSD symptoms. Excellent model fit was found for both models. Results indicated that the relationship between social support and PTSD symptoms was affected by assessment modality. Whereas the self-report model indicated a bidirectional relationship between social support and PTSD symptoms over time, the clinician-assessed model indicated only that baseline PTSD symptoms predicted social support 1 year later. Results highlight that assessment modality is one factor that likely impacts disparate findings across previous studies. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed, with suggestions for the growing body of literature utilizing these designs to dismantle this complex association.

15 Anxiety, social support, and physical health in a sample of spouses of OEF/OIF service members

Anxiety, social support, and physical health in a sample of spouses of OEF/OIF service members

APA Citation:

Fields, J. A., Nichols, L. O., Martindale-Adams, J., Zuber, J., & Graney, M. (2012). Anxiety, social support, and physical health in a sample of spouses of OEF/OIF service members. Military Medicine, 177(12), 1492-1497. doi:10.7205/milmedd-12-00036

Focus:

Couples
Mental health
Other
Physical health

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Army
Marine Corps
Multiple branches
Navy

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty
Guard
Reserve

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Fields, Jordan A.; Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Zuber, Jeffrey; Graney, Marshall

Year: 2012

Abstract

The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between heightened anxiety, social support, and physical health in a sample of spouses of returning Iraq and Afghanistan service members. 86 spouses were recruited nationally as part of a pilot trial of a military spouse telephone support group. Participants completed measures of physical and mental health via telephone including a screening tool for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Scores for social support and health outcomes were compared across two groups (positive vs. negative screens for GAD) using one-way analysis of variance analysis procedures. Path analytic techniques were used to evaluate the relative effects of anxiety and perceived social support on overall health and physical health comorbidities. A total of 38 participants screened positive for GAD. Participants with probable GAD reported having less social support than those screening negative for GAD. GAD participants also reported poorer overall health and more physical health comorbidities than their GAD-negative counterparts. Path analysis indicated that heightened anxiety is associated with worse overall health and social support does not buffer this interaction. The results suggest that anxiety-related health is a critical factor to be addressed in spouses of service members.

16 Involving a significant other in treatment of patients with PTSD symptoms: A systematic review of treatment interventions

Involving a significant other in treatment of patients with PTSD symptoms: A systematic review of treatment interventions

APA Citation:

Meuleman, E., Sloover, M., & van Ee, E. (2022). Involving a significant other in treatment of patients with PTSD symptoms: A systematic review of treatment interventions. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/15248380221082939

Focus:

Mental health
Couples
Trauma

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Meuleman, Eline; Sloover, Mèlanie; van Ee, Elisa

Year: 2022

Abstract

Previous studies have called for the inclusion of social support in the treatment of PTSD. The current review identifies interventions for adults with PTSD symptoms, which include a significant other as a source of social support. 11 articles focusing on eight interventions were found, including a total of 495 participants who had experienced trauma. These interventions were divided according to level of involvement of the significant other in treatment. Significant others were either passively or actively involved in the treatment. Preliminary results show that interventions actively involving a significant other in the treatment of the patient with posttraumatic stress symptoms were most effective in reducing PTSD symptoms. The current review provides recommendations for future research and suggests that significant others should be actively involved in the treatment of PTSD symptoms.

17 Childhood trauma exposure in Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans: Implications for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and adult functional social support

Childhood trauma exposure in Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans: Implications for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and adult functional social support

APA Citation:

Van Voorhees, E. E., Dedert, E. A., Calhoun, P. S., Brancu, M., Runnals, J., Beckham, J. C., & VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup (2012). Childhood trauma exposure in Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans: Implications for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and adult functional social support. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36(5), 423-432. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.03.004

Focus:

Child maltreatment
Mental health
Other
Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dedert, Eric A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Brancu, Mira; Runnals, Jennifer; Beckham, Jean C.

Year: 2012

Abstract

Objective This study examined the relationship among childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and adult social support in a large sample of veterans who served in the military after 09/11/2001, with a specific focus on the potential role of the PTSD avoidance and numbing cluster as intervening in the association between childhood abuse and adult functional social support. Method Participants were 1,301 veterans and active duty soldiers who have served in the military since 09/11/2001; a subsample of these participants (n=482) completed an inventory of current functional social support. Analyses included linear regression and nonparametric bootstrapping procedures. Results After controlling for combat exposure, exposure to childhood trauma was associated with PTSD symptoms in adulthood. Further, PTSD symptoms, and particularly PTSD avoidance/numbing cluster symptoms, intervened in the relationship between childhood trauma and adult functional social support. Conclusions Findings support the association of childhood trauma (both abuse related and other, non-abuse related trauma) with PTSD symptoms in military personnel and veterans, even after accounting for combat exposure. Additionally, the avoidance and numbing symptom cluster of childhood trauma-based PTSD may be particularly salient in compromising one's subsequent ability to garner functional social support in adulthood.

18 Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid major depression in U.S. veterans: The role of deployment cycle adversity and social support

Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid major depression in U.S. veterans: The role of deployment cycle adversity and social support

APA Citation:

Goetter, E. M., Hoeppner, S. S., Khan, A. J., Charney, M. E., Wieman, S., Venners, M. R., Avallone, K. M., Rauch, S. A. M., & Simon, N. M. (2020). Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid major depression in U.S. veterans: The role of deployment cycle adversity and social support. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 33, 276-284. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22496

Focus:

Deployment
Mental health
Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Goetter, Elizabeth M.; Hoeppner, Susanne S.; Khan, Amanda J.; Charney, Meredith E.; Wieman, Sarah; Venners, Margaret R.; Avallone, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Simon, Naomi M.

Year: 2020

Abstract

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) commonly co-occur in combat veterans, and this comorbidity has been associated with higher levels of distress and more social and economic costs compared to one disorder alone. In a secondary analysis of a multisite randomized controlled trial of a sample of veterans with combat-related PTSD, we examined the associations among pre-, peri-, and postdeployment adversity, social support, and clinician-diagnosed comorbid MDD. Participants completed the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory–II as well as structured clinical interviews for diagnostic status. Among 223 U.S. veterans of the military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan (86.9% male) with primary combat-related PTSD, 69.5% had current comorbid MDD. After adjustment for sex, a linear regression model indicated that more concerns about family disruptions during deployment, f2 = 0.065; more harassment during deployment, f2 = 0.020; and lower ratings of postdeployment social support, f2 = 0.154, were associated with more severe self-reported depression symptoms. Interventions that enhance social support as well as societal efforts to foster successful postdeployment reintegration are critical for reducing the mental health burden associated with this highly prevalent comorbidity in veterans with combat-related PTSD.

19 Separated by their work: Families with fathers living apart

Separated by their work: Families with fathers living apart

APA Citation:

Hiew, C.C. (1992). Separated by their work: Families with fathers living apart. Environment and Behavior, 24(2), 206-225. doi:10.1177/0013916592242004

Focus:

Children
Deployment
Mental health

Branch of Service:

International Military

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Childhood (birth - 12 yrs)
School age (6 - 12 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Hiew, Chok C.

Year: 1992

Abstract

In studying work and family life as overlapping domains, of interest is the impact of father absence created by work requirements. Commonly, father absence because of marital discord or death has been found to have detrimental effects on the social and cognitive development of children. In contrast, much less is known about the impact of transitory work-related father absence. Yet this is a new social phenomenon from a global perspective. In developing countries, increasing urban migration meant that families often lose one or both parents who are absent because of work. In Japan, one critical work-related family change is an increasingly common type of family termed tanshinfunin, in which fathers are relocated by their work organizations and are required to live apart from their families for prolonged periods. The present study targeted Canadian military families, which also formed the basis for a cross-cultural comparison of Japanese civilian tanshinfunin families. During father absence, measures of social support perceived by the mother and self-reported coping methods of the elementary school-age children were assessed. Mothers and teachers also rated the children's adjustment and academic performance. Results indicated that father absence which produced a loss of perceived social support by their wives was negatively correlated to behavioral adjustment and academic performance of their children. Children reported the most stress during actual father absence and emotion-focused coping was most commonly used. Interestingly, children who also used more social support seeking to cope with father absence were observed to show less acting-out behaviors in the classroom. Implications of work-related father absence as mediated by family coping resources and cultural factors were discussed.

20 Relations between post-deployment divorce/separation and deployment and post-deployment stressors, social support, and symptomatology in veterans with combat-related PTSD symptoms

Relations between post-deployment divorce/separation and deployment and post-deployment stressors, social support, and symptomatology in veterans with combat-related PTSD symptoms

APA Citation:

Gros, D. F., Lancaster, C. L., Teves, J. B., & Acierno, R. (2019). Relations between post-deployment divorce/separation and deployment and post-deployment stressors, social support, and symptomatology in Veterans with combat-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of Military, Veteran, and Family Health, 5(2), 125-135. https://doi.org/10.3138/jmvfh.2018-0015

Focus:

Deployment
Mental health
Physical health
Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Gros, Daniel F.; Lancaster, Cynthia L.; Teves, Jenna B.; Libet, Julian; Acierno, Ron

Year: 2019

Abstract

Introduction: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent diagnosis in combat Veterans. In addition to reduced quality of life in various domains of functioning, PTSD also is associated with poorer relationships and social support, including marital dissatisfaction and divorce. Although post-deployment divorce/separation was noted as problematic in past conflicts, little is known about divorce/separation following modern conflicts, such as Operations Enduring/Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). The present study investigated the relations between post-deployment divorce/separation and post-deployment stressors, social support, and psychiatric symptomatology in OEF/OIF Veterans seeking treatment for PTSD. Methods: We recruited 98 United States (US) male Veterans from OEF/OIF to participate in the study. Marital status of once-married was required for participation. All participants completed consent documentation and a series of diagnostic interviews and self-report measures. Participants were separated into two groups based on their post-deployment marital status (still married vs. divorced/separated). Results: One-third of the sample indicated they divorced/separated following OEF/OIF. Participants that endorsed a post-deployment divorce/separation demonstrated heightened stress during and after deployment as well as significantly less social support compared to participants who remained married. Discussion: The rates of divorce/separation reported in the sample were comparable to samples of the general American population, despite the elevated risk factors in the Veteran sample (e.g., psychiatric diagnosis). Also, Veterans reporting post-deployment divorce/separation endorsed heightened stress and poorer social support, two factors associated with poorer treatment outcome for PTSD. Together, these findings highlight potential factors associated with post-deployment divorce/separation in OEF/OIF Veterans with PTSD.

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