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Showing library results for: March 2022

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1 Depression and mental health service use among 12–17 Year old U.S. adolescents: Associations with current parental and sibling military service

Depression and mental health service use among 12–17 Year old U.S. adolescents: Associations with current parental and sibling military service

APA Citation:

London, A. S. (2021). Depression and mental health service use among 12-17 year old U.S. adolescents: Associations with current parental and sibling military service. SSM – Population Health, 16, 100920. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100920

Focus:

Mental health
Youth

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Childhood (birth - 12 yrs)
School age (6 - 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: London, Andrew S.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Objective To examine whether having a parent and/or a sibling currently serving in the military is associated with major depression and use of mental health services among 12–17 year old adolescents in the United States. Method Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses are conducted using pooled data from the 2016–2019 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Analyses are weighted and standard errors are adjusted for the complex sampling design. Results Adolescents are more likely to have a sibling than a parent currently serving in the military. Having a sibling currently in the military increases the likelihood of having a lifetime and a past-year major depressive episode (MDE), but not a past-year MDE with severe role impairment or use of mental health services. Having a parent in the military is not associated with any measure of MDE, but increases use of specialty outpatient, specialty inpatient/residential, and non-specialty mental health services net of MDE and sociodemographic controls. Conclusion Considerable attention has focused on risk and resilience among the dependent children of current service members. A better understanding of how the current military service experiences of siblings, as well as parents, influences related adolescents’ mental health, mental health care service use, substance use, and health behaviors has the potential to contribute to programs and interventions that can enhance the well-being of youth with intra-generational as well as inter-generational connections to the military. Adolescents who have a sibling currently serving in the military are an at-risk population for MDE and potentially other mental and behavioral health problems.

2 Predictors of early postpartum maternal functioning among women veterans

Predictors of early postpartum maternal functioning among women veterans

APA Citation:

Goger, P., Szpunar, M. J., Baca, S. A., Gartstein, M. A., & Lang, A. J. (2022). Predictors of early postpartum maternal functioning among women veterans. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 26, 149 – 155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-021-03241-0

Focus:

Parents
Mental health
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Goger, Pauline; Szpunar, Mercedes J.; Baca, Selena A.; Gartstein, Masha A.; Lang, Ariel J.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Introduction The perinatal period constitutes an important window of opportunity for optimizing healthy development of offspring but is heavily influenced by maternal mental health. Maternal pregnancy-related anxiety (PrA), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been implicated in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. The current study examined whether psychopathology during pregnancy and postpartum was associated with greater experienced parenting stress and bonding difficulties in women veterans, who may be predisposed to develop psychopathology due to heightened risk of exposure to traumatic events. Methods Pregnant veterans (N = 28) completed self-report questionnaires regarding their PrA, depression and PTSD symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as on their experience of parenting stress and bonding with their infant. Results PrA was a more robust predictor of postpartum depression (PPD) than depression during pregnancy. PPD, in turn, was significantly associated with bonding and parenting stress, such that more depressed mothers were more likely to experience greater general bonding difficulties, increased rejections and pathological anger towards their infants, greater anxiety towards their infants, and more parenting stress. Conclusions PrA might be a high-yield modifiable risk factor in the prevention of PPD for women veterans and their subsequent experiences with high parenting stress and bonding difficulties.

3 Predictors of adolescent resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic: Cognitive reappraisal and humor

Predictors of adolescent resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic: Cognitive reappraisal and humor

APA Citation:

Kuhlman, K. R., Straka, K., Mousavi, Z., Tran, M. L., & Rodgers, E. (2021). Predictors of adolescent resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic: Cognitive reappraisal and humor. Journal of Adolescent Health, 69, 729-736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.07.006

Focus:

Mental health
Youth

Population:

School age (6 - 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Kuhlman, Kate R.; Straka, Kelci; Mousavi, Zahra; Tran, Mai-Lan; Rodgers, Emma

Year: 2021

Abstract

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to slow the spread of disease have particularly affected the lives of adolescents. Many studies have recently identified the risks to adolescent mental health posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, yet few have identified the markers of resilience to the events and concerns associated with the pandemic's lived experience. This study examined the moderating role of psychosocial resources in the association between the tangible and emotional experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic and symptoms of common psychiatric problems during adolescence (depression, anxiety, proactive and reactive aggression, and sleep problems).

4 The lived experiences of highly mobile military adolescents in search of their identity: An interpretive phenomenological study

The lived experiences of highly mobile military adolescents in search of their identity: An interpretive phenomenological study

APA Citation:

Thomas, J. S., Smart, D., Severtsen, B., & Haberman, M. R. (2021). The lived experiences of highly mobile military adolescents in search of their identity: An interpretive phenomenological study. Journal of Adolescent Research. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/07435584211006469

Focus:

Youth
Mental health

Branch of Service:

Army

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Thomas, Jennifer S.; Smart, Denise; Severtsen, Billie; Haberman, Mel R.

Year: 2021

Abstract

The challenges that military adolescents face, including frequent relocations, pose potential risks to their identity development. The central aim of this study is to understand the impact that frequent relocations have on the identity development of highly mobile military adolescents. Military adolescents between the ages of 16 and 18 years were interviewed. An interpretive phenomenological design was employed to inform the interview and analytic approach. An inductive approach using humanistic interpretation through Hermeneutic circles was conducted. Four overarching themes were identified, including self-perception in the world, building relationships, overwhelming emotions, and fostering healthy transitions. Several subthemes developed and gave rise to common adolescent experiences. Military adolescents facing frequent relocations experience a series of identity crises that are often masked in daily life and kept secret from peers and family. Healthy transitions require the adolescent and family to openly and repeatedly explore the impact of relocations on the inner and social life of adolescents. This study calls for future research on the military adolescent-provider relationship to explore how to better help meet the needs of this population from a health care standpoint.

5 Predicting marital health from adverse childhood experiences among United States Air Force active-duty personnel

Predicting marital health from adverse childhood experiences among United States Air Force active-duty personnel

APA Citation:

Cigrang, J., Balderrama-Durbin, C., Snyder, D. K., Parsons, A. M., Lorko, K., Gupta, A., Smith Slep, A. M., Heyman, R. E., Mitnick, D. M., Wijdenes, K. L., & Yahle, C. (2021). Predicting marital health from adverse childhood experiences among United States Air Force active-duty personnel. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/cfp0000207

Focus:

Couples
Trauma

Branch of Service:

Air Force

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Cigrang, Jeff; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Snyder, Douglas K.; Parsons, Aleja M.; Lorko, Kelsey; Gupta, Avantika; Smith Slep, Amy M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Mitnick, Danielle M.; Wijdenes, Kati L.; Yahle, Courtney

Year: 2021

Abstract

Marital dysfunction in military samples demands special scrutiny because of its concurrent and prospective linkages with a broad spectrum of mental and physical health disorders, as well as its demonstrated adverse impact on military readiness. Although previous research has shown higher risk for marital distress and divorce among female service members (SMs), particularly at the enlisted ranks, contributing factors to this elevated risk remain largely undetermined. The present study examined the antecedent contributing influence of exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on current marital health in a sample of 373 early-career active-duty Airmen, as well as the potential moderating effect of sex on the magnitude of adverse impact. Results indicated higher prevalence of ACEs for this military sample compared with a community sample and higher prevalence of ACEs for female SMs compared with their male counterparts. Moreover, findings revealed the relatively greater adverse impact of childhood abuse or neglect for female SMs in increasing their likelihood of both IPV perpetration and victimization. Overall, these findings indicate the importance of screening for both antecedent and concurrent indicators of marital health in military settings and developing brief intervention protocols targeting relationship distress and its comorbid conditions in this population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

6 PTSD and parental functioning: The protective role of neighborhood cohesion among black and white veterans

PTSD and parental functioning: The protective role of neighborhood cohesion among black and white veterans

APA Citation:

Franz, M. R., Sanders, W., Nillni, Y. I., Vogt, D., Matteo, R., & Galovski, T. (2022). PTSD and parental functioning: The protective role of neighborhood cohesion among Black and White veterans. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 14(S1), S4-S12. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0001123

Focus:

Parents
Trauma
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Franz, Molly R.; Sanders, Wesley; Nillni, Yael I.; Vogt, Dawne; Matteo, Rebecca; Galovski, Tara

Year: 2022

Abstract

Objective: Caregivers with a history of trauma exposure may struggle to parent effectively, particularly when symptoms of PTSD are prominent. Consequently, identifying factors that buffer associations between PTSD and poor parental functioning is critical to help trauma-exposed families thrive. One important source of resilience may spring from being part of a socially cohesive neighborhood that offers positive social connections and resources. The purpose of this study was to examine whether greater neighborhood cohesion buffers associations between PTSD and perceived parental functioning. Method: A diverse national sample of 563 Black and White veterans raising children in single or dual parent households completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms and neighborhood cohesion at baseline, as well as parental functioning four months later. Results: Multigroup moderation analyses that controlled for crime index, income, and sex revealed that among single Black veterans, but not other groups, the relationship between higher PTSD and poorer parental functioning was weakened for veterans who reported higher neighborhood cohesion. Conclusions: Findings suggest that PTSD symptoms and neighborhood cohesion affect parenting differently across racial and family makeup configurations, and that higher neighborhood cohesion might be particularly useful in buffering the association between PTSD and parenting among single Black veterans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

7 Relationship satisfaction among spouse caregivers of service members and veterans with comorbid mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder

Relationship satisfaction among spouse caregivers of service members and veterans with comorbid mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder

APA Citation:

Brickell, T. A., French, L. M., Varbedian, N. V., Sewell, J. M., Schiefelbein, F. C., Wright, M. M., & Lange, R. T. (2021). Relationship satisfaction among spouse caregivers of service members and veterans with comorbid mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder. Family Process. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12731

Focus:

Physical health
Couples
Veterans
Mental health

Branch of Service:

Army
Marine Corps
Navy
Air Force
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty
Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Brickell, Tracey A.; French, Louis M.; Varbedian, Nicole V.; Sewell, Jessie M.; Schiefelbein, Faith C.; Wright, Megan M.; Lange, Rael T.

Year: 2021

Abstract

This study examined relationship satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among spouse caregivers assisting service members and veterans (SMV) with comorbid uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Spouse caregivers (N = 205) completed the Couples Satisfaction Index (CSI), 12 HRQOL measures, and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory 4th Edition (MPAI-4). T-scores were classified as “clinically elevated” using a cutoff of ≥60T. The sample was also classified into “Satisfied” (≥13.5, n = 113, 55.0%) or “Dissatisfied” (<13.5, n = 92, 44.0%) relationship categories. Using stepwise regression analysis, Anxiety, Family Disruption, Vigilance, Emotional Support, Feeling Trapped, and MPAI-4 Adjustment were identified as the strongest predictors of CSI total scores (p < 0.001), accounting for 41.6% of the variance. Squared semi-partial correlations revealed that 18.1% of the variance was shared across all six measures, with 7.8% to 1.5% of unique variance accounted for by each measure separately. When comparing the number of clinically elevated measures simultaneously, the Dissatisfied group consistently had a higher number of clinically elevated scores compared to the Satisfied group (e.g., 3-or-more clinically elevated scores: Dissatisfied = 40.2%, Satisfied = 8.8%, OR = 6.93, H = 0.76). Caring for a SMV with comorbid TBI and PTSD can have a profound impact on the spouse caregiver's HRQOL, relationship satisfaction, and family functioning. The findings from the current study continue to support the need for family involvement in the SMV’s treatment plan, but more effort is needed to integrate behavioral health treatment that focuses on the family member's own issues into military TBI and PTSD systems of care.

8 Training needs among nonmental health professionals working with service members: A qualitative investigation

Training needs among nonmental health professionals working with service members: A qualitative investigation

APA Citation:

Baier, A. L., Marques, L., Borba, C. P. C., Kelly, H., Clair-Hayes, K., Dixon De Silva, L., Chow, L. K., & Simon, N. M. (2019). Training needs among nonmental health professionals working with service members: A qualitative investigation. Military Psychology, 31(1), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2018.1541392

Focus:

Veterans
Mental health
Programming

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Army
Coast Guard
Marine Corps
Navy
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Baier, Allison L.; Marques, Luana; Borba, Christina P. C.; Kelly, Hope; Clair-Hayes, Katherine; Dixon De Silva, Louise; Chow, Louis K.; Simon, Naomi M.

Year: 2019

Abstract

Though many service members will not directly seek mental health care due to stigma and other factors, they may interact with the healthcare system in other ways including contact with first responders, nurses, and allied health care professionals. However, little attention has been spent in this regard on the educational needs of these professionals whose contact with service members and Veterans may provide the opportunity to assist Veterans in need with overcoming barriers to accessing mental health care. This qualitative study investigates the educational training needs of first responders and health care professionals in contact with military families and trauma survivors to determine whether, and what type, of additional training is needed. A sample of 42 first responders and health care professionals including emergency medical technicians, police officers, fire fighters, speech language pathologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, and nurses were recruited to participate in 1 of 6 focus groups. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was guided by a thematic analysis approach. Thematic analyses suggest there is a significant knowledge gap with unmet educational needs of these professionals such as information on the invisible wounds of war, military culture, and screening and referring patients who present symptoms falling outside professionals' scope of practice. Findings point to a need and desire for more robust education for first responders and health care providers around mental health concerns of military populations, including topics such as trauma, military culture, and screening tools. Efforts to develop curricula addressing these concerns are warranted.

9 Evidence-based social work outreach to military leaders to facilitate intimate partner violence and child maltreatment identification and referral: An evaluation

Evidence-based social work outreach to military leaders to facilitate intimate partner violence and child maltreatment identification and referral: An evaluation

APA Citation:

Mitnick, D. M., Heyman, R. E., Slep, A. M. S., Lorber, M. L., & Dills, A. L. (2021). Evidence-based social work outreach to military leaders to facilitate intimate partner violence and child maltreatment identification and referral: An evaluation. Journal of Family Social Work, 24(4), 320–338. https://doi.org/10.1080/10522158.2021.1974141

Focus:

Couples
Child maltreatment
Children
Physical health
Parents
Programming

Branch of Service:

Air Force

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Mitnick, Danielle M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith; Lorber, Michael L.; Dills, Ashley L.

Year: 2021

Abstract

The effects of family maltreatment on the military are far-reaching and well documented, with implications that include the deterioration of mission readiness and an increase in distractibility for all involved. Congress has mandated each service agency to take steps in preventing partner and child maltreatment, including outreach – enlisting military leaders to identify, respond to, and mitigate risk factors for maltreatment in their active duty (AD) members – but the success and impact of these efforts have gone mostly unexamined. This article explores the implementation and evaluation of a new Air Force (AF) family maltreatment training based on empirical and military-specific evidence of prevalence, risk and protective factors, and the impact on military families. This project sought to optimize and standardize such trainings across bases in an interactive manner. As expected, the training led to significantly greater knowledge about family maltreatment, significantly lower belief in the justification of both IPV and parent–child aggression, significantly lower belief in the effectiveness of parent–child aggression to solve problems, significantly increased self-efficacy to help prevent and address family maltreatment on the base, and marginally significantly more positive beliefs about Family Advocacy Program (FAP). Additionally, satisfaction with the training was very high.

10 Spiritual care for combat trauma: A qualitative evaluation of REBOOT Combat Recovery

Spiritual care for combat trauma: A qualitative evaluation of REBOOT Combat Recovery

APA Citation:

Knobloch, L. K., Owens, J. L., & Gobin, R. L. (2021). Spiritual care for combat trauma: A qualitative evaluation of REBOOT Combat Recovery. Military Psychology, 33, 392–402. https://doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2021.1962183

Focus:

Trauma
Mental health
Programming
Children
Deployment
Parents
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Army
Navy
Air Force
Marine Corps
Coast Guard
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty
Veteran
Guard

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Knobloch, Leanne K.; Owens, Jenny L.; Gobin, Robyn L.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Combat trauma experienced in a warzone can hamper the physical, mental, and spiritual health of military service members and Veterans for years afterward. Spiritual care for combat trauma is designed to help service members and Veterans find meaning and purpose in their experiences. One such spiritual care program is REBOOT Combat Recovery, a 12-week, Christian-based course led by trained volunteers across the country. An in-depth investigation of the REBOOT program is needed to advance knowledge of spiritual care for combat trauma and to assess the course in attendees’ own words. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 course graduates. Experiences of the course were positive. Interviewees identified the program’s emphasis on peer fellowship, spirituality, and the roots of distress as reasons for its effectiveness (RQ1). The most helpful aspects of the program involved the hospitality and family focus; targets for improvement included maintaining fidelity to the curriculum and offering opportunities for continuity upon graduation (RQ2). Interviewees described a variety of ways the course affected their view of self, their relationship with God and others, and their perceptions of combat trauma (RQ3). These findings are valuable for enriching spiritual care, in general, and enhancing the REBOOT Combat Recovery program, in particular.

11 Effects of social network characteristics on mental health outcomes among United States Army Reserve and National Guard soldiers

Effects of social network characteristics on mental health outcomes among United States Army Reserve and National Guard soldiers

APA Citation:

Vest, B. M., Goodell, E. M. A., Homish, D. L., & Homish, G. G. (2022). Effects of social network characteristics on mental health outcomes among United States Army Reserve and National Guard soldiers. Community Mental Health Journal. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-021-00935-1

Focus:

Mental health
Substance use

Branch of Service:

Army

Military Affiliation:

Guard
Reserve

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Vest, Bonnie M.; Goodell, Erin M. Anderson; Homish, D. Lynn; Homish, Gregory G.

Year: 2022

Abstract

We sought to examine the relative salience of multiple social network structural characteristics (e.g., size, composition, quality, substance use) for understanding soldiers’ mental health symptoms (anger, anxiety, depression, PTSD). Data are drawn from soldiers (N = 421) participating in the Operation: SAFETY study. Negative binomial regression models examined the relationship between ten social network characteristics and mental health outcomes, controlling for age, sex, years of military service, and deployment history. Greater number of close network ties was associated with fewer symptoms of anger, anxiety, and depression (ps < 0.05), but not PTSD. Having more illicit drug-using network ties was associated with greater severity of anxiety symptoms (p < 0.05). Finally, more days spent drinking with network members was related to higher levels of anger (p < 0.05). Interpersonal relationships that entail substance use are associated with greater anxiety and anger while a greater number of close ties is associated with fewer anger, anxiety, and depression symptoms.

12 Risk and protective factors predictive of marital instability in U.S. military couples

Risk and protective factors predictive of marital instability in U.S. military couples

APA Citation:

Pflieger, J. C., Richardson, S. M., Stander, V. A., & Allen, E. S. (2021). Risk and protective factors predictive of marital instability in U.S. military couples. Journal of Family Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000949

Focus:

Couples

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Army
Coast Guard
Marine Corps
Navy
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)
Very old (85 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Richardson, Sabrina M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Allen, Elizabeth S.

Year: 2021

Abstract

The objective of this study was to predict marital instability from a range of risk and protective factors in a large, representative cohort of military couples participating in the Millennium Cohort Family Study. Online and paper surveys were administered to service members and their spouses in 2011–2013, which captured couples’ demographic and background characteristics, family stressors, military experiences, and mental health risk factors as well as protective factors including family communication, and military support and satisfaction. Approximately 3 years later, change in marital status was examined among participants who completed a follow-up survey (n = 6,494 couples). Hierarchical logistic regression models indicated that couples’ younger age, lower education, childhood trauma, spouse employment status, mental health, and lower levels of communication contributed significant unique risk for marital instability. Moderation analyses by service member gender and spouse military status revealed that social isolation increased odds of marital instability for couples in which the service member was male but was not evidenced for couples in which the service member was female. Further, combat experience increased odds of marital instability for couples in which the service member was married to a veteran spouse but not for service members married to a dual-military or civilian spouse. Findings from this study can be used to target specific couple risk factors for marital instability and to tailor programs to at-risk subgroups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

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