The role of general self-efficacy in intimate partner violence and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among women veterans
Webermann, A. R., Dardis, C. M., & Iverson, K. M. (2022). The role of general self-efficacy in intimate partner violence and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among women veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 35(3), 868-878. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22794
Abstract Created by REACH:
Intimate partner violence (IPV) refers to physical, psychological, emotional, or sexual violence by an intimate partner. Using 411 women Veterans, this study examined whether experiences of IPV were associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over time, as well as whether PTSD symptoms were associated with later IPV experiences. Furthermore, the study hypothesized that selfefficacy was linked with reciprocal associations between earlier PTSD and later IPV, as well as earlier IPV and later PTSD, respectively. PTSD and IPV were measured at baseline (Time 1), 18 months after baseline (Time 2), and 2 years after baseline (Time 3). Self-efficacy was measured at Time 2 and Time 3. Overall, higher PTSD symptoms at Time 1 were associated with lower self-efficacy at Time 2, which in turn associated with higher IPV experiences at Time 3. Other hypotheses were not supported.
Branch of Service:
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)
Webermann, Aliya R., Dardis, Christina M., Iverson, Katherine M.
Whereas some prior studies have assessed associations between general self-efficacy, intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms cross-sectionally, there is limited research investigating the potential directions of these effects or the longitudinal effects over multiple assessment points. We investigated the role of general self-efficacy in experiences of IPV and PTSD symptoms across time among 411 women veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces. Online survey data were collected at baseline (Time 1; T1), 18 months after baseline (Time 2; T2), and 2 years after baseline (Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were used to test hypotheses that T2 general self-efficacy would mediate reciprocal associations between IPV experiences and PTSD symptoms while controlling for T2 IPV experiences, T1 PTSD symptoms, and demographic and military covariates (i.e., age, military sexual trauma, and combat exposure). Specifically, we hypothesized that T2 general self-efficacy would mediate the association between (a) T1 IPV experiences and T3 IPV experiences, (b) T1 IPV experiences and T3 PTSD symptoms, (c) T1 PTSD symptoms and T3 IPV experiences, and (d) T1 PTSD symptoms and T3 PTSD symptoms. Findings revealed that T1 PTSD symptoms predicted lower T2 general self-efficacy, and, in turn, lower T2 general self-efficacy was associated with higher T3 IPV experiences, 95% CI [0.06, 0.41]; no other hypotheses were supported. The findings speak to the importance of clinical interventions which promote general self-efficacy as well as assess and treat PTSD symptoms among women who experience IPV.
VA Connecticut Healthcare System, ARW
VA Boston Healthcare System, ARW
Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, ARW
Department of Psychology, Towson University, CMD
VA Boston Healthcare System, KMI
Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, KMI
Women's Health Sciences Division of the National Center for PTSD, VA Boston Healthcare System, KMI
self-efficacy, intimate partner violence, ptsd
REACH Publication Type:
Supported by Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) Services as part of Dr. Iverson's HSR&D research studies (CDA 10–029, IIR 16–062) and her Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (USA 14–275).