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Identifying contextual factors that impact community reintegration in injured female veterans

APA Citation:

Griffiths, H. K., Hawkins, B. L., & Crowe, B. M. (2020). Identifying contextual factors that impact community reintegration in injured female veterans. Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health, 6(1), 38-47. https://doi.org/10.3138/jmvfh.2018-0043

Abstract Created by REACH:

Community reintegration (i.e., return to daily activities within the community) following deployment can be difficult for veterans. Therefore, this replication study examined self-efficacy and various contextual factors (i.e., policy barriers, physical and structural barriers, work and school barriers, attitudes and support barriers, and services and assistance barriers) that influence community reintegration among physically or psychologically injured veterans who were women (N = 31). Veterans completed self-report measures on all variables under investigation. Contextual factors were not associated with community reintegration; however, self-efficacy was associated with community reintegration.


Griffiths, Haley K., Hawkins, Brent L., Crowe, Brandi M.


Introduction: Women are an ever-growing and integral part of the U.S. military. However, the research on community reintegration (CR) for injured female Veterans is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify the contextual factors influencing CR for injured female Veterans. Methods: Female Veterans reporting a physical or psychological injury acquired during military service (N = 31) completed the Community Reintegration of Service Members’ Extent of Participation (EOP) and Satisfaction with Participation (SWP) subscales, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors, and the New General Self-Efficacy Scale to identify personal and environmental factors affecting CR. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the clustering of participants on the basis of CR scores and the effect of environmental factors and self-efficacy on CR. Results: Levels of CR were organized into low, moderate, and high CR clusters. General self-efficacy was significantly related to CR, and a significant difference was observed between high and low CR clusters. CR was not related to time served in the military, total time deployed, history of suicidal ideation, or having a dependable social support system. Discussion: Findings indicate that general self-efficacy had the strongest relationship with CR for injured female Veterans. Results also suggest that participants had varying levels of CR, and those with lower levels of CR were more likely to perceive environmental factors as barriers to CR. Future research should explore the influence of environmental barriers on CR for injured female Veterans with a larger sample.

Publisher/Sponsoring Organization:

University of Toronto Press

Publication Type:

REACH Publication

Author Affiliation:

Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, University of Tennessee, HKG
Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Clemson University, BLH
Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Clemson University, BMC


community reintegration, Community Reintegration of Service Members Extent of Participation (EOP), Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors, injured female veterans, New General Self-Efficacy Scale, rehabilitation, Satisfaction with Participation (SWP) subscales, U.S. Army

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REACH Publication Type:

Research Summary


Health Canada

REACH Newsletter:

  June 2020

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