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Showing library results for: June 2022

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1 Animal-assisted interventions and post-traumatic stress disorder of military workers and veterans: A systematic review

Animal-assisted interventions and post-traumatic stress disorder of military workers and veterans: A systematic review

APA Citation:

Chirico, F., Capitanelli, I., Nowrouzi-Kia, B., Howe, A., Batra, K., Sharma, M., Szarpak, Ł., Pruc, M., Nucera, G., Ferrari, G., Cortese, C., Gianino, M., & Acquadro Maran, D. (2022). Animal-assisted interventions and post-traumatic stress disorder of military workers and veterans: A systematic review. Journal of Health and Social Sciences, 7, 152–180. https://doi.org/10.19204/2022/NMLS4

Focus:

Trauma
Mental health
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran
Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research

Authors: Chirico, Francesco; Capitanelli, Ilaria; Nowrouzi-Kia, Behdin; Howe, Aaron; Batra, Kavita; Sharma, Manoj; Szarpak, Łukasz; Pruc, Michał; Nucera, Gabriella; Ferrari, Giuseppe; Cortese, Claudio; Gianino, Mariola; Acquadro Maran, Daniela

Year: 2022

Abstract

Introduction: Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAIs) have been increasingly used in the workplace to mitigate the effect of work-related stress and improve psychological well-being among employees. Military workers returning home from combat and veterans face a high burden of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). This systematic review aimed to investigate the potential benefits of AAIs on military workers and veterans affected by PTSD. Methods: A systematic review was conducted across Scopus, PubMed Central/Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar in December 2021 and June 2022 using predefined search criteria. All types of studies published in the English language were included except editorials, commentaries, and narrative reviews. Studied published from January 2001 to December 2021 were included. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 reporting guidelines for this systematic review. The assessment of study quality was carried out with a 16-item Quality Assessment Tool for Studies with Diverse Designs (QATSDD) Results: Overall, 25 studies were finally included in this systematic review. Most of the AAIs were canine-assisted programs (n=12) and therapeutic horseback riding or equine-assisted psychotherapy (n=11). There was only one intervention study utilizing a pinnipeds-based program (n=1), while one study was based on several types of animals (n=1). Out of 25 studies focusing on the effects of AAIs on PTSD in the military (n=3) and veterans (n=21), the majority of them (n=18) observed significantly lower PTSD symptomatology following AAIs. Three studies observed no statistically significant difference in PTSD symptomatology. Discussion: Our findings indicated that implementing AAI programs among military workers and veterans may improve their psychological well-being and reduce the severity of PTSD symptoms. Policymakers and occupational health services should consider adopting AAIs during military service and after military discharge to support the mental health of military workers.

2 Black women in the military: Prevalence, characteristics, & correlates of sexual harassment

Black women in the military: Prevalence, characteristics, & correlates of sexual harassment

APA Citation:

Breslin, R.A., Daniel, S., & Hylton, K. (2022). Black women in the military: Prevalence, characteristics, and correlates of sexual harassment. Public Administration Review, 82(3), 410-419. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13464

Focus:

Physical health
Trauma

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Breslin, Rachel A.; Daniel, Samantha; Hylton, Kimberly

Year: 2022

Abstract

Sexual harassment is a persistent problem in the workplace that warrants further attention in public administration research. Despite the fact that Black women are one of the largest subpopulations in the military, most studies of sexual harassment treat women as a homogenous group and results generally reflect the experiences of White women given their overrepresentation in samples. Using data from a large-scale and representative survey of military members, we find that nearly one in five Black women in the military (17.9%) experienced sexual harassment in 2018. Our findings further detail Black women's sexual harassment experiences and advance the discourse on the need to address sexual harassment in the workplace through an intersectional lens in order to design more inclusive prevention and response programs and policies. For example, inclusive programs should proactively account for the experiences of Black women in the design and evaluation of prevention and response efforts.

3 Some parents survive and some don't: The Army and the family as “greedy institutions”

Some parents survive and some don't: The Army and the family as “greedy institutions”

APA Citation:

Strader, E. & Smith, M. (2022). Some parents survive and some don't: The Army and the family as "greedy institutions". Public Administration Review, 82(3), 446-458. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13467

Focus:

Parents
Other

Branch of Service:

Army

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Strader, Eiko; Smith, Capt Margaret

Year: 2022

Abstract

The military and the family are “greedy institutions” that require the full attention of their members. Being aware of the tension between work and family, the United States military has developed family support policies that are more generous than legally required to ensure personnel readiness. However, family formation remains a major obstacle for recruitment, retention, and integration of women. Using administrative data, this research shows that fathers were more likely to leave prematurely for family reasons than childless men, particularly among non-Hispanic Black and American Indian/Alaska Native men. However, women who gave birth while in service were much less likely to leave for work-family reasons than childless women, while the same could not be said for women who joined as mothers and had no additional children. The results reflect the gendered logic of the organization and the narrow conceptualization of work–family conflict, both of which perpetuate gender-role stereotypes.

4 The buffering role of higher romantic relationship satisfaction on the association of hazardous drinking with PTSD and depression symptoms among female military service members/veterans

The buffering role of higher romantic relationship satisfaction on the association of hazardous drinking with PTSD and depression symptoms among female military service members/veterans

APA Citation:

Blais, R. K., Hess, R. A., & Serang, S. (2021). The buffering role of higher romantic relationship satisfaction on the association of hazardous drinking with PTSD and depression symptoms among female military service members/veterans. Addictive Behaviors, 123, 107081. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107081

Focus:

Couples
Substance use
Trauma
Mental health

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty
Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Blais, Rebecca K.; Hess, Ryan A.; Serang, Sarfaraz

Year: 2021

Abstract

Studies show that more positive relationship satisfaction can mitigate the effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression severity on hazardous drinking in military samples. However, past studies were not circumscribed to female service members/veterans (SM/V), who represent the fastest growing demographic in the military. Moreover, studies did not examine moderators of specific symptom clusters of PTSD and depression with hazardous drinking. Indeed, recent studies have shown that the more depressive and cognitive clusters are associated with greater dysfunction. The current study extended this literature in a convenience sample of 584 female SM/V who completed self-report measures of hazardous drinking, PTSD, depression, and relationship satisfaction. PTSD or depression severity, relationship satisfaction, and their interaction, were examined as correlates of hazardous drinking after accounting for relationship, demographic, and military characteristics. For both overall PTSD and depression severity, higher relationship satisfaction weakened their association with hazardous drinking. Such results were consistent when global scores were replaced with PTSD-related negative alterations in cognitions and mood and somatic depression symptom clusters, but not for PTSD-related dysphoric arousal, anhedonia, or non-somatic depression symptom clusters. Findings suggest that to lessen the association of PTSD or depressive symptoms with problematic drinking, interventions aimed at improving relationship satisfaction may be worth considering among women in relationships. Moreover, symptom cluster analyses show that the cognitive and depressive components of PTSD, as well as the physical symptoms of depression, are most problematic, pinpointing specific areas of function on which to intervene.

5 Safety planning for intimate partner violence: Practical and contextual considerations for service providers

Safety planning for intimate partner violence: Practical and contextual considerations for service providers

APA Citation:

Frye-Cox, N., Short, K., O’Neal, C. W., & Lucier-Greer, M. (2022). Safety planning for intimate partner violence: Practical and contextual considerations for service providers. Auburn, AL: Military REACH

Focus:

Couples
Programming
Trauma

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research Report

Authors: Frye-Cox, Nick; Short, Kaylee; O'Neal, Catherine W.; Lucier-Greer, Mallory

Year: 2022

6 Interpersonal trauma histories and relationship functioning among LGB veteran couples seeking PTSD treatment

Interpersonal trauma histories and relationship functioning among LGB veteran couples seeking PTSD treatment

APA Citation:

Rashkovsky, K., Solano, I., Khalifian, C., Morland, L. A., & Knopp, K. (2022). Interpersonal trauma histories and relationship functioning among LGB veteran couples seeking PTSD treatment. Military Psychology, 34(4), 494-501. https://doi.org/10.1080/08 995605.2021.2016308

Focus:

Veterans
Couples
Trauma

Branch of Service:

Navy
Army
Marine Corps
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Rashkovsky, Katerine; Solano, Ingrid; Khalifian, Chandra; Morland, Leslie A.; Knopp, Kayla

Year: 2022

Abstract

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) Veterans report greater emotional distress, trauma exposure, and PTSD rates than both LGB civilians and non-LGB Veterans. Traumatic experiences impact intimate relationships, potentially placing LGB Veterans at higher risk of relationship dysfunction secondary to trauma and PTSD. However, limited research has examined links between relationship functioning and trauma histories among couples with one or more LGB-identifying partners. In this exploratory study, participants include 21 couples from a larger treatment study comprising a PTSD-diagnosed Veteran and their significant other in which at least one partner identified as LGB. Variables included trauma experiences, PTSD symptom severity, and relationship satisfaction. A descriptive analysis revealed high relationship satisfaction despite high interpersonal trauma rates among both PTSD-diagnosed Veterans and their partners. Further, we found different patterns of relationship functioning depending on whether a participant had experienced sexual assault. These initial analyses present novel data on trauma in treatment-seeking LGB veteran couples and provide an important basis for future research on couple-based mental health treatments for this population.

7 Prescriptions of psychotropic medications by providers treating children of military service members

Prescriptions of psychotropic medications by providers treating children of military service members

APA Citation:

Kucera, A., Koehlmoos, T., Grunwald, L., Banaag, A., Schvey, N. A., Quinlan, J., & Tanofsky-Kraff, M. (2022). Prescriptions of psychotropic medications by providers treating children of military service members. Military Medicine, Article usac048. https://doi.org/10.1093/ milmed/usac048

Focus:

Mental health
Youth
Children

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches
Army
Navy
Air Force
Marine Corps

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Childhood (birth - 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)
School age (6 - 12 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Kucera, Alexandria; Koehlmoos, Tracey; Grunwald, Lindsay; Banaag, Amanda; Schvey, Natasha A.; Quinlan, Jeffrey; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

Year: 2022

Abstract

There are approximately 1.5 million U.S. military-dependent children. However, little is known about mental health referrals for these youths. This study sought to examine the type of mental health treatment referrals made by primary care providers for child military-dependent beneficiaries receiving care in the direct (within Military Treatment Facilities) and private care (civilian-fee-for service facilities) sectors of the Military Health System.A between-subjects, cross-sectional study was performed on children aged 5–18 years old in fiscal years 2011–2015 and enrolled in TRICARE Prime. Study analyses examined specialty (“talk therapy”) mental health care and psychotropic medication referrals from TRICARE Prime (the Defense Health Agency-managed health care program) providers for beneficiary children diagnosed with attention-, mood-, anxiety-, or behavior-related disorders in direct versus private sector care.Of 1,533,630 children enrolled in TRICARE Prime (50.03% female), 8.6% (n = 131,393) were diagnosed with a psychological disorder during FY 2011–2015. Most were attention-related (5.2%, n = 79,770), followed by mood (1.7%, n = 25,314), anxiety (1.1%, n = 16,155), and conduct-related diagnoses (0.7%, n = 10,154). Adjusting for age, sex, and sponsor rank, children within direct care diagnosed with attention-related disorders were 1.7 times more likely to receive a prescription for psychotropic medication than those in private sector care, odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): [1.66, 1.77]. Children diagnosed with mood-related disorders in direct care were 2.1 times more likely to receive a prescription for psychotropic medication than those in private sector care, OR = 2.08, 95% CI: [1.96, 2.21]. Across disorders, children who received private sector care were more likely to have a referral specialty mental health (“talk therapy”) follow-up (ps < 0.0001).For attention- and mood-related disorders, but not anxiety- or conduct-related disorders, direct care providers were more likely than private sector care providers to prescribe psychotropic medications. Inconsistencies of provider referrals within and outside of the Military Health System should be elucidated to determine the impact on outcomes.

8 The roles of stress, coping, and parental support in adolescent psychological well-being in the context of COVID-19: A daily-diary study

The roles of stress, coping, and parental support in adolescent psychological well-being in the context of COVID-19: A daily-diary study

APA Citation:

Wang, M.T., Del Toro, J., Scanlon, C. L., Schall, J. D., Zhang, A. L.,...Plevniak, K. A. (2021). The roles of stress, coping, and parental support in adolescent psychological well-being in the context of COVID-19: A daily-diary study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 294, 245–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.06.082

Focus:

Mental health
Youth
Parents

Population:

Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Wang, Ming-Te; Toro, Juan Del; Scanlon, Christina L.; Schall, Jacqueline D.; Zhang, Angela L.; Belmont, Allison M.; Voltin, Sarah E.; Plevniak, Keri A.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Background COVID-19 has introduced novel stressors into American adolescents’ lives. Studies have shown that adolescents adopt an array of coping mechanisms and social supports when contending with stress. It is unclear, though, which strategies are most effective in mitigating daily pandemic-related stress, as few micro-longitudinal studies have explored adolescents’ daily affect during COVID-19. Parental support may also be a critical component of adolescents’ pandemic-related coping, as adolescents’ peer networks have been limited by public health measures. Methods This longitudinal study examined links between stress, coping, parental support, and affect across 14 consecutive days and 6216 assessments from a national sample of adolescents (N=444; Mage=15.0; 60% female; 44% Black/African American, 39% White/Europen American, 9% Latinx, 6% Asian American, 2% Native American) during school closures and state-mandated stay-at-home orders between April 8 and April 21, 2021. Results Adolescents’ health and financial stress predicted increases in same-day (health stress’ effect size = .16; financial stress’ effect size = .11) and next-day negative affect (health stress’ effect size = .05; financial stress’ effect size = .08). Adolescents’ secondary control engagement coping predicted increases in same-day (effect size = .10) and next-day (effect size = .04) positive affect and moderated the link between health stress and negative affect. Parental social support predicted increases in same-day (effect size = .26) and next-day (effect size = .06) positive affect and decreases in same-day (effect size = .17) negative affect and moderated the link between financial stress and negative affect. Limitations Results are indicative of conditions at the immediate onset of COVID-19 and should be interpreted as such. Conclusions Findings provide information as to how health providers and parents can help adolescents mitigate the impact of COVID-19-related health and economic stressors on their psychological well-being. It remains critical to monitor the psychosocial impact of the pandemic on adolescents’ affect while continuing to identify personal and environmental protective factors for reducing harm and maximizing resilience.

9 Concerns of relationship mistreatment, emotional abuse, and physical abuse in deployed military medical personnel: Prevalence and risk factors

Concerns of relationship mistreatment, emotional abuse, and physical abuse in deployed military medical personnel: Prevalence and risk factors

APA Citation:

McMahon, C. J., Zwetzig, S., Schumann, B., Straud, C. L., Baker, M. T., Young-McCaughan, S., Litz, B. T., Isler, W. C., McNally, R. J., Mintz, J., & Peterson, A. L. (2022). Concerns of relationship mistreatment, emotional abuse, and physical abuse in deployed military medical personnel: Prevalence and risk factors. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 66, Article 101735. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2022.101735

Focus:

Deployment
Couples
Mental health
Trauma

Branch of Service:

Air Force

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: McMahon, Chelsea J.; Zwetzig, Sarah; Schumann, Bailee; Straud, Casey L.; Baker, Monty T.; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Litz, Brett T.; Isler, William C.; McNally, Richard J.; Mintz, Jim; Peterson, Alan L.

Year: 2022

Abstract

The aims of this study were to identify self-reported point-prevalence rates of concerns about relationship mistreatment, emotional abuse, and physical abuse among military medical personnel and to evaluate demographic and military risk factors associated with these concerns. Participants (N = 721) were U.S. Air Force military medical personnel (61.4% male) deployed to Iraq between 2004 and 2011 who reported being either married or engaged. Most of the sample expressed at least some concern for mistreatment (79.0%), emotional abuse (70.8%), or physical abuse (66.3%) in their relationship. Caucasians were more likely to endorse emotional abuse concerns compared with other racial groups (p = .04). Men (p = .02) and service members who identified as Christians (p = .03) were more likely to endorse physical abuse concerns compared to their respective counterparts. Results suggest that relationship abuse concerns may be more common than expected among deployed military medical personnel. Demographic factors were associated with abuse concerns and military service characteristics and probable posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis were not associated with abuse concerns. Future research should examine abuse concerns in population-based studies of military personnel and evaluate the longitudinal trajectory of outcomes associated with relationship abuse among active duty military personnel across the deployment cycle.

10 Factors influencing parental functioning and satisfaction for veteran mothers during civilian transition

Factors influencing parental functioning and satisfaction for veteran mothers during civilian transition

APA Citation:

Morgan, N. R., Karre, J. K., Aronson, K. R., McCarthy, K. J., Bleser, J. A., & Perkins, D. F. (2022). Factors influencing parental functioning and satisfaction for veteran mothers during civilian transition. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 71(4), 1554-1574. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12669

Focus:

Veterans
Parents
Mental health
Physical health

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches
Army
Navy
Air Force
Marine Corps

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Morgan, Nicole R.; Karre, Jennifer K.; Aronson, Keith R.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Bleser, Julia A.; Perkins, Daniel F.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Objective Risk and protective factors associated with parental functioning (i.e., meeting child's emotional needs) and satisfaction (i.e., closeness) were examined among post-9/11 veteran mothers during their civilian transition. Background Post–military-separation stressors (e.g., relocation, benefit changes) can strain well-being and familial relationships. Stress, particularly in the presence of unresolved trauma from military-specific risks, can impinge upon parental functioning and satisfaction, negatively influencing child outcomes (e.g., social–emotional, academic, behavioral). Method A prospective cohort was identified from all active duty service members who separated in May–September 2016. Logistic regression analyses of surveys completed by post-9/11 veteran mothers (n = 711) assessed effects of protective (i.e., resilience) and military-specific risk factors (i.e., deployments) on parental functioning and satisfaction. Interactions between protective factors and deployments and combat (patrols and corollaries) were explored. Results Coping characteristics (e.g., healthy behaviors), absence of mental health conditions, and social supports were positively associated with parental functioning and satisfaction. Household financial security was not. Mothers who had deployed reported higher parental functioning and satisfaction. Mothers experiencing combat patrols were less likely to report high parental functioning. Conclusion Malleable protective factors positively influence parenting but do not buffer against combat exposure. Implications Interventions bolstering protective factors for veteran mothers can foster coping, reintegration, and positive child outcomes.

11 Financial status and well-being in recently separated military veterans

Financial status and well-being in recently separated military veterans

APA Citation:

Elbogen, E. B., Zeber, J. E., Vogt, D., Perkins, D. F., Finley, E. P., & Copeland, L. A. (2022). Financial status and well-being in recently separated military veterans. Military Medicine, usac030. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usac030

Focus:

Veterans
Mental health
Physical health
Other

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches
Army
Navy
Air Force
Marine Corps

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Elbogen, Eric B.; Zeber, John E.; Vogt, Dawne; Perkins, Daniel F.; Finley, Erin P.; Copeland, Laurel A.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Introduction Veterans transitioning from military service to civilian life manage numerous changes simultaneously, in health, employment, social relationships, and finances. Financial problems may impact financial well-being as well as adjustment to civilian life in general; yet, research on Veterans’ financial challenges remains limited. This study examined six indicators of perceived financial status among newly transitioned Veterans over a period of 3 years and then examined perceived financial well-being measured in two domains—satisfaction and functioning—and difficulty adjusting to civilian life as functions of financial status. Materials and Methods A sample representing 48,965 Veterans who separated from active duty/activated status in fall 2016 provided informed consent and survey data over their first 33 post-military months; data were analyzed in weighted regression models that included demographics, military characteristics, social support, resilience, life stress, and indicators of financial status. Results Financial status immediately post-separation included having stable housing (88%), being able to pay for necessities (83%), keeping up with creditors (88%), having insurance for catastrophic events such as disability (79%), saving for retirement (62%), and setting aside 3 months of salary (50%). Thirteen percent of Veterans disclosed troubled financial status, having achieved no more than two of these financial goals; 38% had moderate and 49% excellent financial status. Troubled or moderate financial status, Black race, enlisted, and higher levels of stress predicted lower financial functioning. Older age, college degree at baseline, employment, and social support predicted better financial satisfaction. Veterans with troubled financial status reported greater difficulty adjusting to civilian life (odds ratio 1.34); women were less likely to report difficulty adjusting to civilian life (odds ratio 0.85). Conclusions Findings indicate that financial satisfaction and functioning may be sensitive to psychosocial factors (social support and stress). Findings also underscore the value of assessing Veterans’ financial status (poor debt management and lack of future planning), providing encouragement and assistance to pursue a college degree, and improving household financial management, thus increasing the likelihood that Veterans will have the necessary tools to manage their finances after separation and achieve whole health well-being.

12 Physical health, behavioral and emotional functioning in children of gulf war veterans

Physical health, behavioral and emotional functioning in children of gulf war veterans

APA Citation:

Toomey, R., Alpern, R. E., White, A. J., Li, X., Reda, D. J., & Blanchard, M. S. (2021). Physical health, behavioral and emotional functioning in children of gulf war veterans. Life Sciences, 282, Article 119777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119777

Focus:

Veterans
Children
Physical health
Mental health
Youth

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Childhood (birth - 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)
Preschool age (2 -5 yrs)
School age (6 - 12 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Toomey, R.; Alpern, R. E.; White, A. J.; Li, X.; Reda, D. J.; Blanchard, M. S.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Objective We examined whether the prevalence of medical and behavioral conditions is higher in children of deployed veterans (DVs) versus non-deployed veterans (NDVs) after the 1991 Gulf War. Methods We examined 1387 children of 737 veterans. Children ages 2-18 had physical exams and parental reports of physical history and behavior. Results Physical health was analyzed using GEE models. Behavioral health [total, internalizing, and externalizing behavior problems (TBP, IBP, EBP)] was analyzed with mixed-effects regression models. Analyses were conducted by age group (2-3, 4-11, 12-18), and gender (ages 4-11, 12-18). Children of DVs ages 2-3 had significantly worse dentition (13.9% vs. 4.8%, P = 0.03) and more EBP {least square means (lsmeans) 54.31 vs. 47.59, P = 0.02}. Children of DVs ages 4-11 had significantly more obesity (18.8% vs. 12.7%, P = 0.02). Among children 4-11, male children of DVs had significantly more TBP (lsmeans 70.68 vs. 57.34, P = 0.003), IBP (lsmeans 63.59 vs. 56.16, P = 0.002) and EBP (lsmeans 61.60 vs. 52.93, P = 0.03), but female children did not. For children ages 12-18, male children of DVs had more EBP (lsmeans 63.73 vs. 43.51, P = 0.008), while female children of DVs had fewer EBP (lsmeans 45.50 vs. 50.48, P = 0.02). Veteran military characteristics and mental health, and children's social status and health, including obesity, predicted children's TBP for one or more age groups. Conclusions Children of DVs experienced worse dentition, greater obesity, and more behavioral problems compared to NDV children, suggesting adverse health effects associated with parental deployment in need of further exploration.

13 Postdeployment mental health concerns and family functioning in veteran men and women

Postdeployment mental health concerns and family functioning in veteran men and women

APA Citation:

Zelkowitz, R. L., Archibald, E. A., Gradus, J. L., & Street, A. E. (2022). Postdeployment mental health concerns and family functioning in veteran men and women. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0001237

Focus:

Deployment
Mental health
Veterans
Parents
Trauma
Youth

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Zelkowitz, Rachel L.; Archibald, Emma A.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Street, Amy E.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Objective: Despite growing numbers of veteran women, it is unclear whether the impact of common postdeployment mental health concerns on key aspects of family functioning varies by gender. We examined whether associations between PTSD, depression, and problematic alcohol use and intimate relationship quality and parenting self-efficacy differed among men and women in a large, gender-balanced sample of post-9/11 veterans. Method: Participants included 2,348 veterans (51.49% women) of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan who were part of a larger study of gender differences in effects of wartime deployment. Veterans who were married or in a relationship (n = 1,536, 49.09% women) reported overall relationship quality. Veterans with children under age 18 (n = 1,049; 51.57% women) self-reported on their sense of efficacy as parents. All participants reported symptoms of PTSD, depression, and problematic alcohol use. We used a series of hierarchical linear regressions to test gender as a moderator of each postdeployment mental health concern and the family functioning constructs of interest. Results: Each postdeployment mental health concern was associated with reduced relationship quality and parenting self-efficacy, and these associations were largely consistent across gender. However, links between reduced parenting self-efficacy and increased PTSD and depressive symptoms were stronger in women compared with men. Conclusions: Postdeployment mental health concerns are associated with impairment in key family relationships for both veteran men and women. This impact may be particularly profound for parenting self-efficacy among female veterans, highlighting the potential importance of targeted interventions in this domain. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

14 Perceptions of family acceptance into the military community among U.S. LGBT service members: A mixed-methods study

Perceptions of family acceptance into the military community among U.S. LGBT service members: A mixed-methods study

APA Citation:

Sullivan, K. S., Dodge, J., McNamara, K., Gribble, R., Keeling, M., Taylor-Beirne, S., Kale, C., Goldbach, J., Fear, N. T., Castro, C. A. (2021). Perceptions of family acceptance into the military community among U.S. LGBT service members: A mixed-methods study. Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health, 7(s1), 90-101. https://doi.org/10.3138/jmvfh-2021-0019

Focus:

Programming
Other

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Army
Marine Corps
Navy
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Sullivan, Kathrine S.; Dodge, Jessica; McNamara, Kathleen; Gribble, Rachael; Keeling, Mary; Taylor-Beirne, Sean; Kale, Caroline; Goldbach, Jeremy; Fear, Nicola T.; Castro, Carl A.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Lay Summary There are approximately 16,000 families of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) service members in the U.S. military, but very little is known about how accepted they feel in the communities in which they live. This study begins to address this question by considering the perspectives of LGBT service members, which they shared both in response to an online survey and in interviews. Findings suggest that many service members believe their spouses and families are accepted by their chain of command. However, a smaller but important group continued to express concerns about their family being accepted in their military community. Many service members appear concerned that family services available to them through the military are not appropriate for LGBT families. Altogether, this article highlights the need for more research to understand the well-being and needs of this group.

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