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Showing library results for: July 2022

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1 Military spouses’ perceptions of suicide in the military spouse community

Military spouses’ perceptions of suicide in the military spouse community

APA Citation:

Cole, R. F., Cowan, R. G., Dunn, H., & Lincoln, T. (2021). Military spouses’ perceptions of suicide in the military spouse community. The Professional Counselor, 11(2), 203-217. https://doi.org/10.15241/rfc.11.2.203

Focus:

Other
Mental health

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches
Air Force
Army
Navy

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Cole, R. F.; Cowan, R. G.; Dunn, H.; Lincoln, T.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Newly released data from the U.S. Department of Defense shows military spouse suicide to be an imminent concern for the U.S. military. Currently, there is an absence of research in the counseling profession related to suicide prevention and intervention for this population. Therefore, this qualitative phenomenological study explored the perceptions of military spouses regarding suicide within their community. Ten military spouses were interviewed twice and were asked to provide written responses to follow-up questions. Six main themes emerged: (a) loss of control, (b) loss of identity, (c) fear of seeking mental health services, (d) difficulty accessing mental health services, (e) the military spouse community as a protective factor, and (f) desire for better communication about available mental health resources. Implications for practicing counselors and military leadership in helping to prevent military spouse suicide as well as recommendations for future research regarding ways to support military spouse mental health and prevent suicide in this community are included.

2 Trajectories of depression symptoms during the process of deployment in military couples

Trajectories of depression symptoms during the process of deployment in military couples

APA Citation:

Coppola, E. C., Christ, S. L., Topp, D., Southwell, K., Bailey, K., & MacDermid Wadsworth, S. (2022). Trajectories of depressive symptoms during the process of deployment in military couples. Military Psychology, 34(1), 110-120. https://doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2021.1974807

Focus:

Couples
Deployment
Mental health

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Guard

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Coppola, Elizabeth C.; Christ, Sharon L.; Topp, David; Southwell, Kenona; Bailey, Keisha; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

Year: 2022

Abstract

Informed by life course theory, we estimated depression symptom trajectories for couples throughout a deployment cycle using data from a longitudinal study of National Guard couples (n= 339). One-third of couples served as a comparison group by participating in data collection after their deployments were canceled. We proposed that 1) service members and partners would display multiple trajectories of depression symptoms that differ as a function of role (i.e., service member or at-home partner) and exposure to deployment; 2) trajectory patterns would be associated with indicators of human capital; 3) service members’ and partners’ depression symptoms would be linked to each other. We found that depressive symptom trajectories varied by exposure to deployment and role, and that higher levels of human capital were mostly associated with lower depressive symptoms, although we did not find support for partner interdependence. Results were considered in the context of life course theory and emotional cycles of deployment.

3 The association of self-reported romantic relationship satisfaction and anhedonia symptoms secondary to posttraumatic stress among trauma-exposed male service members/veterans

The association of self-reported romantic relationship satisfaction and anhedonia symptoms secondary to posttraumatic stress among trauma-exposed male service members/veterans

APA Citation:

Blais, R. K. (2022). The association of self-reported romantic relationship satisfaction and anhedonia symptoms secondary to posttraumatic stress among trauma-exposed male service members/veterans. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 14(2), 318-325. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0001058

Focus:

Couples
Mental health
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Army
Marine Corps
Navy
Air Force
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty
Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Blais, Rebecca K.

Year: 2022

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with poorer romantic relationship satisfaction in military samples. Studies have examined PTSD symptom clusters and their association with relationship satisfaction, but these studies are limited to the pre-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 PTSD models or samples of women. The current study explored the best fitting model of PTSD using contemporary symptoms and examined the association of symptom clusters and relationship satisfaction in a sample of partnered male service members/veterans who reported exposure to a probable Criterion A event. METHOD: Factor analyses of 6 competing PTSD models were compared using confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 499 men. Path analysis was then used to examine which symptom clusters were uniquely associated with relationship satisfaction after accounting for covariates in a subsample of 217 men who reported probable Criterion A exposure. RESULTS: The Anhedonia and Hybrid Models had the best fit to the data in both the larger sample and subsample of men reporting probable trauma exposure. Models had comparable model fit, thus symptom clusters from both models were examined as predictors of relationship satisfaction in 2 separate analyses adjusted for covariates. In both analyses, only higher anhedonia symptoms were associated with lower romantic relationship satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Data was cross-sectional so causality cannot be inferred, but it appears that poorer relationship satisfaction is more common when symptoms of anhedonia are high. Interventions to improve relationship satisfaction among those reporting posttraumatic stress symptoms may be most effective if they focus on reducing anhedonia.

4 Comparing two distinct military samples on traumatic events, positive coping styles and post traumatic growth

Comparing two distinct military samples on traumatic events, positive coping styles and post traumatic growth

APA Citation:

Blau, G., & Miller, G. (2022). Comparing two distinct military samples on traumatic events, positive coping styles and post traumatic growth. Journal of Education and Learning, 11(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p1

Focus:

Veterans
Mental health
Trauma

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran
Guard
Reserve

Population:

Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Blau, Gary; Miller, Glen

Year: 2021

Abstract

This study collected complete data traumatic event-related information, positive coping styles, and post traumatic growth variables from two different United States (US) military veteran samples: non-combat military veterans (n = 54) and combat military veterans (n = 84). Although both samples represent military veterans, only one sample experienced actual combat, i.e., active fighting in a war against an enemy. All data were collected via online survey. Demographically, both samples were predominately White male, with a four-year college degree being the highest education level frequency. The average participant age was 29 years and there was no significant mean age difference between the samples. In addition, there were no significant sample differences in the total number of traumatic events experienced or time since the most powerful traumatic event was experienced. The purposes of this study were to: (1) test if four positive coping strategies were related to Post Traumatic Growh (PTG), and (2) to determine if there were differences in the use of these four coping strategies or experienced PTG for non-combat versus combat military veterans. The four positive coping styles were measured, instrumental support, emotional support, religion, and acceptance. For the combined sample, two coping styles, instrumental support and religion were each significant positively related to post traumatic growth (PTG). Significant sample differences were found on instrumental support and religion such that the non-combat veterans perceived higher mean levels on both coping styles versus the combat veterans. No sample difference was found for PTG. Future research directions and study limitations are discussed.

5 Acceptance matters: Disengagement and attrition among LGBT personnel in the U.S. military

Acceptance matters: Disengagement and attrition among LGBT personnel in the U.S. military

APA Citation:

McNamara, K. A., Gribble, R., Sharp, M., Alday, E., Corletto, G., Lucas, C. L., Castro, C. A., Fear, N. T., Goldbach, J. T., & Holloway, I. W. (2021). Acceptance matters: Disengagement and attrition among LGBT personnel in the U.S. military. Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health, 7(S1), 76-89. https://doi.org/10.3138/jmvfh-2021-0017

Focus:

Other
Mental health

Branch of Service:

Air Force
Marine Corps
Army
Navy
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: McNamara, Kathleen A.; Rachael, Gribble; Sharp, Marie-Louise; Alday, Eva; Corletto, Giselle; Lucas, Carrie L.; Castro, Carl A.; Fear, Nicola T.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Holloway, Ian W.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Introduction: The U.S. military has undergone profound changes in its policies toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members (SMs) over the past decade. Although emerging evidence indicates that some LGBT SMs perceive their coworkers as supportive, a sizable group report continued victimization, harassment, and fear of disclosing their LGBT identity. Because employee perception of cohesion and belonging affects retention in the workplace, such discrimination is likely to affect retention of LGBT military personnel. Methods: Survey data come from a study funded by the U.S. Department of Defense (2017-2018) and completed by 544 active-duty SMs (non-LGBT n = 296; LGBT n = 248). Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine military career intentions among SMs according to socio-demographics, perceived acceptance, and unit climate. Results: One in 3 transgender SMs plan to leave the military upon completion of their service commitment, compared with 1 in 5 cisgender LGB SMs and 1 in 8 non-LGBT SMs. LGBT SMs were twice as likely as non-LGBT SMs to be undecided about their military career path after controlling for confounding variables. Lower perceived LGBT acceptance was associated with a higher risk of attrition among LGBT SMs. Lower perceived unit cohesion was associated with attrition risk for all SMs. Discussion: These findings suggest that, although some LGBT SMs may feel accepted, the U.S. military could do more to improve its climate of acceptance to prevent attrition, especially for transgender SMs. Taking measures to prioritize unit cohesion would improve retention of qualified LGBT and non-LGBT SMs.

6 Coming home: A feasibility study of self-guided dialogues to facilitate soldiers’ social interactions and integration

Coming home: A feasibility study of self-guided dialogues to facilitate soldiers’ social interactions and integration

APA Citation:

Milstein, G., Guerrero, M., Palitsky, R., Robinson, L., & Espinosa, A. (2022). Coming home: A feasibility study of self-guided dialogues to facilitate soldiers’ social interactions and integration. Military Psychology, 34(2), 252–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2021.1986344

Focus:

Programming
Veterans

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Guard

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Milstein, Glen; Guerrero, Mayra; Palitsky, Roman; Robinson, Leslie; Espinosa, Adriana

Year: 2022

Abstract

The success of service members’ transition from military to civilian life is an ongoing concern for their personal well-being, for their families, and for our communities. There is a need for interventions to promote improved social integration. This one-arm feasibility study examined the ease of use, satisfaction, and desire for social interaction in response to the Warrior Spirit/Mission Homefront (WS/MH) self-guided dialogue program, which facilitates conversations among small groups of fellow service members through gamified activities (N = 299 service members). Through the use of a specially designed card deck and game, service members answer questions written to elicit responses about themselves and their military service. WS/MH dialogs and discussions model how persons can speak about deployment and military service with others. These discussions facilitate the articulation of experiences across a range of difficulties – according to persons’ own comfort threshold – in order to cultivate language that can translate to conversations with which to reconnect with family and community. The activity demonstrated high satisfaction, and yielded the anticipated increases in positive emotion (p = .013) and desire for social interaction (p = .001) in pre-post comparisons. Satisfaction was associated with change in positive emotions and change in willingness to talk with others. This provides initial evidence of good feasibility and satisfaction with WS/MH, as a promising and readily scalable tool in the ongoing efforts to improve service members’ and Veterans’ social interactions, belongingness and emotional well-being as they come home.

7 Military-connected adolescents’ emotional and behavioral risk status: Comparisons of universal screening data and national norms

Military-connected adolescents’ emotional and behavioral risk status: Comparisons of universal screening data and national norms

APA Citation:

Vannest, K. J., Carrero, K. M., Patience, B., Price, G., Altmann, R., Haas, A., & Smith, S. (2021). Military-connected adolescents’ emotional and behavioral risk status: Comparisons of universal screening data and national norms. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 30, 134-145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-020-01887-y

Focus:

Children
Mental health
Deployment
Other
Parents

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Guard
Reserve
Active Duty

Population:

Childhood (birth - 12 yrs)
School age (6 - 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Vannest, Kimberly J.; Carrero, Kelly M.; Patience, Brenda; Price, Georgette; Altmann, Rob; Haas, April; Smith, Stacey

Year: 2021

Abstract

Differences in risk for social, emotional, and behavioral problems in the military dependent and non-military population across gender and age group, were examined using an instrument with established psychometric properties. Schools with an average of 25% military students (two elementary schools and two high schools) were selected based on their student population and absence of tier one or two intervention programming. A total of 3111 students were sampled; data for 2852 participants were available for analysis. Proportion differences across categories of risk indicate no statistically significant difference in risk between military and non-military students within the district overall but differences were found by age and gender. Statistically significant differences were also identified between military-student population national norms. Implications include the use of universal screening to identify sub-groups for targeted programming. Highlights: Research examining the incidence and prevalence of mental health concerns among military-connected children has yet to reach consensus. Very few existing studies use instruments with published psychometric properties; the BASC-2 BESS was used in this study. Results highlight the importance of referencing a nationally normed sample when assessing risk in military children. This sample did not have differences in the risk level of military-dependents when compared to non-military peers.

8 Families playing animal crossing together: Coping with video games during the COVID-19 pandemic

Families playing animal crossing together: Coping with video games during the COVID-19 pandemic

APA Citation:

Pearce, K. E., Yip, J. C., Lee, J. H., Martinez, J. J., Windleharth, T. W., Bhattacharya, A., & Li, Q. (2022). Families playing Animal Crossing together: Coping with video games during the COVID-19 pandemic. Games and Culture, 17(5), 773-794. https://doi.org/10.1177/15554120211056125

Focus:

Children
Parents
Couples

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Preschool age (2 -5 yrs)
School age (6 - 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Pearce, Katy E.; Yip, Jason C.; Lee, Jin Ha; Martinez, Jesse J.; Windleharth, Travis W.; Bhattacharya, Arpita; Li, Qisheng

Year: 2022

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic was stressful for everyone, particularly for families who had to supervise and support children, facilitate remote schooling, and manage work and home life. We consider how families coped with pandemic-related stress using the video game Animal Crossing: New Horizons. Combining a family coping framework with theorizing about media as a coping tool, this interview study of 27 families (33 parents and 37 children) found that parents and children individual coped with pandemic-related stress with media. Parents engaged in protective buffering of their children with media, taking on individual responsibility to cope with a collective problem. Families engaged in communal coping, whereby media helped the family cope with a collective problem, taking on shared ownership and responsibility. We provide evidence for video games as coping tools, but with the novel consideration of family coping with media.

9 Unhealthy family functioning is associated with health-related quality of life among military spouse caregivers

Unhealthy family functioning is associated with health-related quality of life among military spouse caregivers

APA Citation:

Brickell, T. A., French, L. M., Sullivan, J. K., Varbedian, N. V., Wright, M. M., & Lange, R. T. (2022). Unhealthy family functioning is associated with health-related quality of life among military spouse caregivers. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 14(4), 587–596. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0001055

Focus:

Veterans
Physical health
Mental health
Couples

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Brickell, Tracey A.; French, Louis M.; Sullivan, Jamie K.; Varbedian, Nicole V.; Wright, Megan M.; Lange, Rael T.

Year: 2021

Abstract

Objective: The current study examines health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and family functioning in a sample of spouse caregivers assisting post-9/11 service members and veterans (SMV) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method: Participants were 316 spouse (and partner) caregivers of SMVs following a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating TBI. Caregivers completed the Family Assessment Device General Functioning subscale, 24 HRQOL questionnaires, and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (4th ed.; MPAI-4). The sample was divided into two family functioning groups: Healthy Family Functioning (HFF; n = 162) and Unhealthy Family Functioning (UFF; n = 154). Scores on HRQOL measures that generate T scores using normative data were classified as “clinically elevated,” using a cutoff of > 60T. Results: Compared with the HFF group, caregivers in the UFF group reported worse scores on all HRQOL measures and worse SMV functional ability on the MPAI-4 Adjustment Index and Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability/Anger/Aggression items (all psds = .41–1.36). A significantly higher proportion of the UFF group had clinically elevated HRQOL scores compared with the HFF group on the majority of measures (Hs = .24–.75). When examining all HRQOL measures simultaneously, the UFF group consistently had a significantly higher cumulative percentage of clinically elevated scores compared with the HFF group (e.g., ≥ 5 clinically elevated scores: UFF = 53.9% vs. HFF = 22.2%; H = .68). Conclusions: Caring for a SMV following TBI with comorbid mental health problems may have negative implications for their family functioning and the caregiver’s HRQOL. Family-centered interventions could be beneficial for military families experiencing distress following SMV TBI and mental health comorbidity.

10 A program evaluation of a recreation-based military family camp

A program evaluation of a recreation-based military family camp

APA Citation:

Mitchell, K., Townsend, J., Hawkins, B. L., & Van Puymbroeck, M. (2019). A program evaluation of a recreation-based military family camp. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 18(4), 19–26. https://doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2019.0199

Focus:

Programming
Parents
Children
Mental health

Branch of Service:

Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Veteran

Population:

Childhood (birth - 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Mitchell, Kathryn; Townsend, Jasmine; Hawkins, Brent; Puymbroeck, Marieke Van

Year: 2019

Abstract

Camps may be beneficial environments to provide military families with opportunities to participate in meaningful leisure to revitalize family relationships and to form connections within the military family community. While research has investigated the effects of these programs on veterans and families, limited research incorporates consumer-based evaluations of the service provider. Thus, the purpose of this study was to perform an evaluation of a therapeutic, recreation-based military family camp. A multiphase importance performance analysis (IPA) was implemented with 19 individuals who attended the camp. Participants rated program components using a 5-point Likert scale. Results revealed high importance and performance scores on all program components, as well as highlighted areas of programing with opportunity for maintenance and improvement. These findings provide recommendations for the improvement of this camp, as well as insight into future research and/or evaluations of military family camp programing.

11 Mental health, ill-defined conditions, and healthcare utilization following bereavement: A prospective case-control study

Mental health, ill-defined conditions, and healthcare utilization following bereavement: A prospective case-control study

APA Citation:

Fisher, J. E., Krantz, D. S., Ogle, C. M., Zhou, J., Zuleta, R. F., Strickman, A. K., Fullerton, C. S., Ursano, R. J., & Cozza, S. J. (2022). Mental health, ill-defined conditions, and health care utilization following bereavement: A prospective case-control study. Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, 63(5), 434-444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaclp.2022.02.007

Focus:

Mental health
Physical health

Branch of Service:

Army
Air Force
Marine Corps
Navy
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Krantz, David S.; Ogle, Christin M.; Zhou, Jing; Zuleta, Rafael F.; Strickman, Amy K.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Ursano, Robert J.; Cozza, Stephen J.

Year: 2022

Abstract

Background Bereavement has been associated with increases in immune/inflammatory and neuroendocrine reactions, cardiovascular events, non-specific physical symptoms, mental conditions, and healthcare utilization. However, little is known about bereavement effects in younger samples, multiple health effects within samples, or health changes from pre- to post-bereavement. Purpose To determine the effect of bereavement on the prevalence of medical conditions and utilization of healthcare. Procedures This study examined the prevalence of fifteen medical conditions and healthcare utilization before, and in the first and second years following bereavement in a population of 1375 U.S. military widows and compared them to 1375 non-bereaved U.S. military control wives. Main Findings Compared to controls, widows showed greater increases from pre-bereavement levels in prevalence of ill-defined conditions and in mental health conditions in years 1 and 2 following bereavement. Healthcare utilization also increased for widows compared to controls. Utilization was highest for widows with comorbid ill-defined conditions and mental health conditions. Principal Conclusions The increased prevalence of both ill-defined conditions and mental health diagnoses following bereavement and the resultant need for increased healthcare utilization in this help-seeking sample suggests a need for proactive health monitoring of all military widows to identify and treat mental health conditions, as well as recognize manifestations of physical symptoms, in those who may not seek treatment.

12 Pregnancy and posttraumatic stress disorder: Associations with infant outcomes and prenatal care utilization

Pregnancy and posttraumatic stress disorder: Associations with infant outcomes and prenatal care utilization

APA Citation:

Lutgendorf, M. A., Abramovitz, L. M., Bukowinski, A. T., Gumbs, G. R., Conlin, A. M. S., & Hall, C. (2022). Pregnancy and posttraumatic stress disorder: Associations with infant outcomes and prenatal care utilization. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 35(25), 9053-9060. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.2013796

Focus:

Children
Mental health
Physical health

Branch of Service:

Army
Navy
Air Force
Marine Corps
Coast Guard
Multiple branches

Military Affiliation:

Active Duty

Population:

Adolescence (13 - 17 yrs)
Young adulthood (18 - 29 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Thirties (30 - 39 yrs)
Middle age (40 - 64 yrs)


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Research & Summary

Authors: Lutgendorf, Monica A.; Abramovitz, Lisa M.; Bukowinski, Anna T.; Gumbs, Gia R.; Conlin, Ava Marie S.; Hall, Clinton

Year: 2022

Abstract

Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects 3.6–9.7% of women, and has been associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy; however, associations with prenatal care (PNC) utilization are not clear.Objective To evaluate associations of PTSD in pregnancy with PNC utilization and adverse infant outcomes in an active-duty military population (a population with universal health insurance).Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of pregnant active-duty service members in Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Research program data from 2007 to 2014. Administrative medical encounter data were used to define PTSD cases and outcomes of interest. Descriptive statistics and multivariable log-binomial regression compared PNC utilization and adverse infant outcomes (preterm birth, small for gestational age [SGA], major birth defects) among service members with current PTSD (defined as PTSD in the year prior to pregnancy or during pregnancy) to those without current PTSD.Results Of the 103,221 singleton live births identified, 1657 (1.6%) were born to active-duty service members diagnosed with current PTSD. Service members with PTSD were more likely to initiate PNC in the first trimester (93.5% vs. 90.2%) and score adequate plus on the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index (63.2% vs. 40.0%) compared to service members without PTSD. PTSD case status was not associated with preterm birth, SGA, or major birth defects, regardless of the adjustment set used (fully adjusted RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.82–1.13; RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.79–1.48; and RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79–1.34, respectively).Conclusion For pregnant service members with current PTSD, no associations with adverse infant outcomes were noted, and these patients initiated care earlier and had higher PNC utilization scores compared to pregnant service members without current PTSD. Universal health care coverage and utilization of PNC in this population may mitigate adverse pregnancy outcomes observed in civilian populations of patients with PTSD.

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