Dependent variables are those affected by the independent variable(s). In experimental research, the dependent variable measures the effect of the independent variable on the outcome. In nonexperimental research, the dependent variable, although not manipulatable, can be causally inferred to result from the independent variable.
Citation: Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., & Liao, T. (2004). The SAGE encyclopedia of social science research methods (Vols. 1–3). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412950589