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Parametric statistics are those "statistics designed for normally distributed data".

Citation: Morgan, G. A., Leech, N. L., Gloeckner, G. W., and Barrett, K. C. (2013). IBM SPSS for introductory statistics: Use and interpretation. New York, NY: Routledge.

Category: Data analyses

Parceling involves the inference of latent constructs through the aggregation of items.

Citation: Matsunaga, M. (2008). Item parceling in structural equation modeling: A primer. Communication Methods and Measures, 2(4), 260–293. https://doi.org/10.1080/19312450802458935

Category: Data analyses

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Peer-reviewed journals are scholarly journals containing articles written by experts in a particular field and reviewed by other experts in that field before publication. Publications in peer-reviewed journals are more likely to be scientifically valid since they have been approved by the reviewing experts.

Category: Methodology

Perceptual bias refers to mental shortcuts that people use to gain understanding of the world which result in partial or inaccurate assumptions.

Category: Errors and biases

Performance bias occurs when the interventionists in a research study do not all perform at the same level of quality, thus distorting the potential cause-effect relationship between the intervention and participant outcomes.

Citation: Pannucci, C. J., & Wilkins, E. G. (2010). Identifying and avoiding bias in research. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 126(2), 619–625. https://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181de24bc

Category: Errors and biases

The person-centered approach is an approach to psychological therapy. This approach hypothesizes that an individual is capable of developing greater self-understanding, self-confidence, and ability to choose behaviors when they are submerged within a growth-promoting climate. Thus, it is the responsibility of the therapist to provide transparency, acceptance, and empathy to a client to facilitate the client's personal growth.

Citation: Rogers, C. R. (1979). The foundations of the person-centered approach. Education, 100(2), 98. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=4727029&site=eds-live

Category: Programs, therapies, and resources

Personnel are "individuals required in either a military or civilian capacity to accomplish the assigned mission."

Citation: Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2019). Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. Washington DC: The Joint Staff.

See "Phenomenology" and "Qualitative study"

Category: Study methods and variables

Phenomenology involves the descriptive examination of people's experiences. Rather than studying why a phenomenon occurs or trying to intervene, phenomenology instead seeks out themes and meaning to understand what is happening. It is most useful when examining a phenomenon that has not been previously studied.

Citation: Early Intervention Foundation. (n.d.). Family stress model. Retrieved from https://www.eif.org.uk/download.php?file=files/pdf/cg-rpc-2-2-family-stress-model.pdf

Category: Theories

Post-hoc questions are "after the fact questions," meaning that after the first round of analysis in a study, the researchers decide to deviate from the original plan of analysis by adding more questions to the survey/questionnaire to collect more data.

Citation: Allen, M. (Ed.) (2017). The sage encyclopedia of communication research methods (Vols. 1-4). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483381411

Category: Study methods and variables

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