An observational study involves the objective observation of participants by the researcher or research team in order to collect data on the variables of interest.
Citation: Maruyama, G. and Ryan, C. S. (2014) Research Methods in Social Relations. West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
An odds ratio is a comparison of the odds of one event happening for one particular group and the odds that another event will happen for another group. Odds ratios can be assessed when working with dichotomous variables to study associations in the data.
Citation: Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., & Liao, T. (2004). The SAGE encyclopedia of social science research methods (Vols. 1–3). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412950589 Morgan, G. A., Leech, N. L., Gloeckner, G. W., and Barrett, K. C. (2013). IBM SPSS for introductory statistics: Use and interpretation. New York, NY: Routledge.
Category: Data analyses
The one sample paired t-test is a procedure used to compare the sample mean with the hypothesized population mean to assess significant differences between the two. This test works under the assumptions that the dependent variable is normally distributed in the population, and that data are independent (i.e., participants do not influence one another's score).
Citation: Morgan, G. A., Leech, N. L., Gloeckner, G. W., and Barrett, K. C. (2013). IBM SPSS for introductory statistics: Use and interpretation. New York, NY: Routledge.
Category: Data analyses
Ontology is the study of the existence and understanding of an entity or phenomenon.
Citation: Hofweber, T. (2017 October 11). Logic and Ontology. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-ontology/#Ont
An operation is "a sequence of tactical actions with a common purpose or unifying theme."
Citation: Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2019). Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. Washington DC: The Joint Staff.
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) was the title used by the United States to refer to the Global War on Terrorism. OEF began on October 7, 2001, in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, after which the United States targeted al-Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan. OEF in Afghanistan ended on December 28, 2014, with the completion of the U.S.-led combat operations there.
Citation: Operation enduring freedom. (2017, November 6). Retrieved March 7, 2019, from https://www.history.navy.mil/browse-by-topic/wars-conflicts-and-operations/terrorism/operation-enduring-freedom.html
Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) is the U.S. military campaign against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), conducted by a combined joint task force. The mission began in 2014 and is still ongoing.
Citation: Special report: Operation inherent resolve. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2019, from https://www.defense.gov/OIR/ Lange, K. (2017, October 11). U.S. central command: Differentiating its major operations. Retrieved February 19, 2019, from http://www.dodlive.mil/2017/10/11/u-s-central-command-differentiating-its-major-operations/
Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was the United States name for the March 20, 2003 invasion of Iraq towards the beginning of the Iraq War. After Iraq was found in breach of the U.N. Security Council Resolution 1441, which "prohibits stockpiling and importing of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)," OIF was authorized by President George W. Bush. The U.S. campaign continued until September 1, 2010 when OIF was renamed to Operation New Dawn (OND) as the role of U.S. troops was reduced in Iraq. President Obama ended the mission in Iraq on December 15, 2011.
Citation: Operation Iraqi freedom. (2017, November 6). Retrieved February 19, 2019, from https://www.history.navy.mil/browse-by-topic/wars-conflicts-and-operations/terrorism/operation-iraqi-freedom.html C.N.N. Library (2018, March 8). Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn fast facts. Retrieved February 19, 2019, from https://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/meast/operation-iraqi-freedom-and-operation-new-dawn-fast-facts/index.html
Operation New Dawn (OND) was the new name given to U.S. involvement in Iraq, previously known as Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), on September 1, 2010 as the role of U.S. troops was reduced in Iraq. OND was drawn to a close at the end of the Iraq War in December 2011.
Citation: C.N.N. Library (2018, March 8). Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn fast facts. Retrieved February 19, 2019, from https://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/meast/operation-iraqi-freedom-and-operation-new-dawn-fast-facts/index.html
Operationalization refers to the process of using theoretical concepts to create measurements which can appropriately measure the variables of interest.
Citation: Allen, M. (Ed.) (2017). The sage encyclopedia of communication research methods (Vols. 1-4). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483381411
Category: Study methods and variables