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REACH Dictionary
C Clear

A military campaign is the conduction of large-scale operations for strategic purposes.

Category: Military

Causation refers to a relationship between variables in which one variable causes a particular outcome to occur.

Category: Data analyses

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The chain of command refers to "the success of commanding officers from a superior to a subordinate through which command is exercised."

Category: Military

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Channeling bias occurs when certain characteristics dictate which participants are assigned to a particular study group (i.e., group assignment is not random).

Category: Errors and biases

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The chi-square statistic is used in chi-square tests to determine whether or not there is a statistically significant relationship between two dichotomous variables, though it does not indicate the strength of said relationship. Chi-square requires a relatively large sample size, and assumes that the data for the variables is independent, data are nominal, and that at least 80% of the expected counts must be 5 or larger.

Category: Data analyses

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The chi-square tests allow researchers to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between two dichotomous variables. However, these tests do not measure the strength of the relationship, only whether or not the relationship exists.

Category: Data analyses

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Child-parent psychotherapy is a treatment model to improve a child's cognitive, behavioral, and social functioning after experiencing a traumatic event and/or mental health, attachment, and/or behavioral problems by strengthening the bond between the child and his/her caregiver.

Category: Programs and therapies

Chronology bias can occur during intervention studies where researchers fail to account for changes over time outside of the intervention that may influence the efficacy of the intervention. To avoid chronology bias, researchers can use historic controls from the recent past, but not further out, or conduct prospective cohort or randomized control trials.

Category: Errors and biases

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Citation bias occurs because researchers are more likely to submit publications with positive results than those with negative results for fear that a publication with negative results will damage their reputations.

Category: Errors and biases

A clinical trial is a type of study in which researchers study the effects of health-related interventions on health outcomes in human participants.

Category: Study methods and variables

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